Compliance with Surgical Care Improvement Project Blood Glucose-A Marker for Euglycemia, but Does It Put our Patients at Risk?
ABSTRACT Abstract To improve outcomes in open heart surgery (OHS) patients, the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) requires 6 am postoperative day (POD) 1 and 2 blood glucose (BG) to be ≤200mg/dL. This study examined risk factors for SCIP noncompliance when using an insulin infusion protocol (IIP) and evaluated this SCIP metric as a surrogate for glycemic control. The authors divided 99 consecutive OHS patients, all subjected to 1 uniform IIP, into 2 groups: Group 1-SCIP compliant (n=79) and Group 2-SCIP noncompliant (n=20). They determined mean BG for the first 48 postoperative hours, percent of total time with hyperglycemia (% time BG >200mg/dL) for each group, and assessed risk of SCIP noncompliance as relates to multiple risk factors including intensity of IIP application, and switching to subcutaneous (SQ) insulin prior to 6 am on POD 2. Group 1 had lower mean BG than Group 2 and percent of total time with hyperglycemia, P<0.0001. Multivariate analysis showed diabetes, obesity in nondiabetics, and switching to SQ insulin prior to 6 am on POD 2 to be risk factors for SCIP noncompliance. The 6 am BG values on POD 1 or POD 2 each correlated with average postoperative BG, and compliance with the SCIP BG metric was associated with virtually uniform BG ≤200mg/dL. IIP application was not significantly different between groups (P=0.2). Only patients who had been switched to SQ insulin prior to 6 am POD 2 were noncompliant at 6 am on POD 2. There were hypoglycemic events (BG <70mg/dL) in 15 of 99 patients (15%), 12 of whom (80%) were in Group 1. Noncompliance with this SCIP measure occurred more frequently in patients with diabetes or, if nondiabetic, in those patients with obesity. A trend toward increased insulin assessments in the SCIP noncompliant group suggests that 1 uniform IIP for all patients may not be effective. By not requiring the reporting of hypoglycemia, SCIP may inadvertently be exposing patients to harm. (Population Health Management 2012;15:309-314).
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ABSTRACT: Among critically ill patients, glycemic control reduces mortality and morbidities, but the use of intravenous insulin infusion is complicated by hypoglycemia. Having a standardized algorithm increases the likelihood of effective and safe utilization of intravenous insulin therapy. A tabular dose-defining protocol for intravenous insulin infusion is described, containing design elements intended to minimize risk for hypoglycemia while seeking control in a narrow target range, and performance is evaluated among critically ill trauma service patients. The protocol assigns insulin infusion rate (IR) for ranges of blood glucose (BG). The columns are arranged in order of increasing maintenance rate (MR) for insulin infusion. Patient column assignment is determined according to rate of change of BG. During stable column assignment, the IR is a function of column MR and BG. Within-column, the protocol formula provides that (a) for BG between 70 mg/dL and target BG, the IR increases exponentially to the column MR; and (b) for BG above upper target BG range, the IR increases linearly as an adaptation of the rule of 1800, with slope determined by the column MR. Values for IR calculated by formula are rounded to correspond to BG ranges of the table. Performance was assessed in 27 sequential runs among 24 trauma service patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (2004-2005). Using point-of-care measurements, mean preinfusion BG was 230.0 +/- 67.9 mg/dL. BG < 140 mg/dL was reached during all 27 runs (median time 5.0 h), and target BG was < 110 mg/dL during 25 runs (median time 11.0 h). For the group of runs attaining target before interruption of insulin infusion, the average +/- SD of the principal measure of glycemic control, the within-run mean BG, was 113.7 +/- 14.8 mg/dL (coefficient of variation 13%, n = 25 runs). After attaining target, the average within-run SD for BG was 22.9 mg/dL. The within-run frequency of hypoglycemic measurements (BG < 70 mg/dL) as a percentage of BG determinations was 2.4%. In this series, no instance of BG <50 mg/dL was seen. This report describes a nurse-implemented tabular protocol for intravenous insulin infusion having the advantages of efficacy, safety, and simplicity of use. Wide variability of IR in the neighborhood of BG 110 mg/dL is associated with stable BG response, and protection against hypoglycemia is achieved by rapid decline of IR at BGs in or below the target range.Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 09/2006; 8(4):476-88. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study sought to determine whether tight glycemic control with a modified glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) solution in diabetic coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients would improve perioperative outcomes. One hundred forty-one diabetic patients undergoing CABG were prospectively randomized to tight glycemic control (serum glucose, 125 to 200 mg/dL) with GIK or standard therapy (serum glucose <250 mg/dL) using intermittent subcutaneous insulin beginning before anesthesia and continuing for 12 hours after surgery. GIK patients had lower serum glucose levels (138+/-4 versus 260+/-6 mg/dL; P<0.0001), a lower incidence of atrial fibrillation (16.6% versus 42%; P=0.0017), and a shorter postoperative length of stay (6.5+/-0.1 versus 9.2+/-0.3 days; P=0.003). GIK patients also showed a survival advantage over the initial 2 years after surgery (P=0.04) and decreased episodes of recurrent ischemia (5% versus 19%; P=0.01) and developed fewer recurrent wound infections (1% versus 10%, P=0.03). Tight glycemic control with GIK in diabetic CABG patients improves perioperative outcomes, enhances survival, and decreases the incidence of ischemic events and wound complications.Circulation 04/2004; 109(12):1497-502. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that strict perioperative glycemic control improves clinical outcomes after cardiothoracic surgery. However, optimal methods and targets for controlling blood glucose (BG) levels in this setting have not been established. Currently published intensive insulin infusion protocols (IIPs) have important practical limitations, which may affect their utility. In this article, the authors present their experience with a safe, effective, nurse-driven IIP, which was implemented simultaneously in 2 cardiothoracic intensive care units (CTICUs). Prospective cohort study. Tertiary referral hospital and community teaching hospital. CTICU patients. A standardized, intensive IIP was used for all patients admitted to both CTICUs. Hourly BG levels, relevant baseline variables, and clinical interventions were collected prospectively from the active hospital chart and CTICU nursing records. The IIP was used 137 times in 118 patients. The median time required to reach target BG levels (100-139 mg/dL) was 5 hours. Once BG levels decreased below 140 mg/dL, 58% of 2,242 subsequent hourly BG values fell within the narrow target range, 73% within a "clinically desirable" range of 80 to 139 mg/dL, and 94% within a "clinically acceptable" range of 80 to 199 mg/dL. Only 5 (0.2%) BG values were less than 60 mg/dL, with no associated adverse clinical events. The IIP safely and effectively improved glycemic control in 2 CTICUs, with minimal hypoglycemia. Based on prior studies showing the benefits of strict glycemic control, the implementation of this IIP should help to reduce morbidity and mortality in CTICU patients.Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 01/2005; 18(6):690-7. · 1.45 Impact Factor