The NS1 protein of influenza A virus blocks RIG-I-mediated activation of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway and p52/RelB-dependent gene expression in lung epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT Influenza A virus (IAV) infection of epithelial cells activates NF-κB transcription factors via the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway, which modulates both the antiviral immune response and viral replication. Since almost nothing is known so far about a function of noncanonical NF-κB signaling after IAV infection, we tested infected cells for activation of p52 and RelB. We show that the viral NS1 protein strongly inhibits RIG-I-mediated noncanonical NF-κB activation and expression of the noncanonical target gene CCL19.
Article: Influenza viruses and the NF-kappaB signaling pathway - towards a novel concept of antiviral therapy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Influenza A virus remains a major public health concern, both in its annual toll in death and debilitation and its potential to cause devastating pandemics. Like any other virus, influenza A viruses are strongly dependent on cellular factors for replication. One of the hallmark signaling factors activated by viral pathogens is the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Activation of NF-kappaB leads to the up-regulation of a variety of antiviral genes. Thus, the factor is commonly regarded as a major regulator of the innate immune defense to infection. However, several recent studies indicate that influenza viruses have acquired the capability to reprogram this antiviral activity and to exploit the factor for efficient replication. These data provide novel insights into the pathophysiological function of NF-kappaB in the special environment of a virus-infected cell. Furthermore, the unexpected viral dependency on a cellular signaling factor may pave the path for novel antiviral approaches targeting essential cellular components rather than viral factors.Biological Chemistry 09/2008; 389(10):1307-12. · 2.96 Impact Factor
Article: The alternative NF-kappaB pathway from biochemistry to biology: pitfalls and promises for future drug development.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The past two decades have led to a tremendous work on the transcription factor NF-kappaB and its molecular mechanisms of activation. The nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB is controlled by two main pathways: the classical and the alternative NF-kappaB pathways. The classical NF-kappaB pathway activates the IKK complex that controls the inducible degradation of most IkappaB family members that are IkappaBalpha, IkappaBbeta, IkappaBvarepsilon and p105. The alternative NF-kappaB pathway induces p100 processing and p52 generation through the activation of at least two kinases, which are NIK and IKKalpha. Genetic studies have shown that IKKgamma is dispensable for the alternative pathway, which suggests the existence of an alternative IKKalpha-containing complex. It is noteworthy that activation of particular p52 heterodimers like p52/RelB requires solely the alternative pathway while activation of p52/p65 or p52/c-Rel involves a "hybrid pathway". Among others, LTbetaR, BAFF-R, CD40 and RANK have the ability to induce the alternative pathway. The latter plays some roles in biological functions controlled by these receptors, which are the development of secondary lymphoid organs, the proliferation, survival and maturation of B cell, and the osteoclastogenesis. Exacerbated activation of the alternative pathway is potentially associated to a wide range of disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis or B cell lymphomas. Therefore, inhibitors of the alternative pathway could be valuable tools for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and cancers.Biochemical Pharmacology 11/2006; 72(9):1161-79. · 4.70 Impact Factor
Article: The anti-inflammatory agents aspirin and salicylate inhibit the activity of I(kappa)B kinase-beta.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: NF-kappaB comprises a family of cellular transcription factors that are involved in the inducible expression of a variety of cellular genes that regulate the inflammatory response. NF-kappaB is sequestered in the cytoplasm by inhibitory proteins, I(kappa)B, which are phosphorylated by a cellular kinase complex known as IKK. IKK is made up of two kinases, IKK-alpha and IKK-beta, which phosphorylate I(kappa)B, leading to its degradation and translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus. IKK kinase activity is stimulated when cells are exposed to the cytokine TNF-alpha or by overexpression of the cellular kinases MEKK1 and NIK. Here we demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory agents aspirin and sodium salicylate specifically inhibit IKK-beta activity in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of aspirin and sodium salicylate inhibition is due to binding of these agents to IKK-beta to reduce ATP binding. Our results indicate that the anti-inflammatory properties of aspirin and salicylate are mediated in part by their specific inhibition of IKK-beta, thereby preventing activation by NF-kappaB of genes involved in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory response.Nature 12/1998; 396(6706):77-80. · 36.28 Impact Factor