Physical and sexual abuse in childhood as predictors of early-onset cardiovascular events in women.
ABSTRACT Although child abuse is widespread and has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, its association with CVD events is not established.
We examined associations of child abuse with CVD events among 66 798 women in the Nurses' Health Study 2. Proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for myocardial infarction (n=262), stroke (n=251), and total CVD (n=513). Severe physical abuse was reported by 9% and forced sex by 11% of participants. After adjustment for age, race, childhood body type, parental education, and family CVD history, the hazard ratios for CVD events were 0.91 (95% CI, 0.70-1.17) for mild physical abuse, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.82-1.26) for moderate physical abuse, and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.11-1.92) for severe physical abuse compared with no abuse. Compared with women without childhood sexual abuse, the hazard ratio was 1.10 (95% CI, 0.88-1.35) for unwanted sexual touching and 1.56 (95% CI, 1.23-1.99) for forced sex. After adjustment for adult lifestyle and medical risk factors, the hazard ratio for severe physical abuse was 1.13 (95% CI, 0.85-1.51) and that for forced sex was 1.25 (95% CI, 0.98-1.60); these intermediates accounted for much of the association of severe child abuse with CVD. Associations were similar for retrospectively and prospectively reported events. Women with abuse were less likely to release medical records. The associations were stronger for unconfirmed self-reported events than end points that were corroborated with additional information or medical record review.
Severe child abuse is a prevalent risk for early adult CVD that is partially mediated by preventable risk factors.
SourceAvailable from: Shakira Franco Suglia[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Maltreatment during childhood and adolescence has been associated with chronic conditions in adulthood including cardiovascular disease. However, less is known about the effects of childhood maltreatment on cardiovascular risk factors prior to development of cardiovascular disease, or whether these effects are evident in young adulthood. Furthermore, few studies have examined sex differences and most studies have relied on self-reported outcome measures that are subject to misclassification.BMC Public Health 11/2014; 14(1):1149. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1149 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Violence, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, has been associated with physical health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease. However, the consistency of the existing literature has not been evaluated. In 2013, the authors conducted a PubMed and Web of Science review of peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2013 on the relation between violence exposure, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, and cardiovascular outcomes. To meet inclusion criteria, articles had to present estimates for the relation between violence exposure and cardiovascular outcomes (e.g., hypertension, blood pressure, stroke, coronary disease, or myocardial infarction) adjusted for demographic factors. Articles focusing on violence from television, video games, natural disasters, terrorism, or war were excluded. The initial search yielded 2,273 articles; after removing duplicates and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 articles were selected for review. A consistent positive relation was noted on the association between violence experienced during childhood and cardiovascular outcomes in adulthood (i.e., hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction). Associations across genders with varying types of violence exposure were also noted. By contrast, findings were mixed on the relation between adult violence exposure and cardiovascular outcome. Despite varying definitions of violence exposure and cardiovascular endpoints, a consistent relation exists between childhood violence exposure, largely assessed retrospectively, and cardiovascular endpoints. Findings are mixed for the adult violence-cardiovascular health relation. The cross-sectional nature of most adult studies and the reliance of self-reported outcomes can potentially be attributed to the lack of findings among adult violence exposure studies. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.American Journal of Preventive Medicine 02/2015; 48(2):205-12. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2014.09.013 · 4.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adverse childhood experiences are associated with hypertension in older adults. This study assessed whether an association between child maltreatment and blood pressure is detectable in young adults and whether any association differs by sex or is modified by genetic polymorphisms known to be involved in stress sensitivity. We examined these patterns in a sample of 12,420 young adults ages 24–32 years who participated in Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants retrospectively reported history of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse before age 18 years. Participants with a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg were classified as hypertensive. We used sex-stratified linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between each type of childhood maltreatment and SBP, DBP, and hypertension. We created interaction terms to assess for effect modification of any relationship between maltreatment and blood pressure by sex or SLC64A genotype. Fifteen percent of females and 31.5% of males were hypertensive. Frequent physical abuse in childhood was reported by 5%, frequent emotional abuse by 12%, and any sexual abuse by 5%. No association was observed between abuse history and blood pressure in either males or females, nor was effect modification present by SLC64A genotype. Child maltreatment exposure was not associated with blood pressure or hypertension in young adults in this study. Future studies should investigate additional critical windows for the effect of child maltreatment on cardiovascular health.Child Abuse & Neglect 09/2014; 38(11). DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.08.019 · 2.47 Impact Factor