Gene mutation defends against Alzheimer's disease

Nature (Impact Factor: 41.46). 07/2012; 487(7406):153. DOI: 10.1038/487153a
Source: PubMed


Rare genetic variant suggests a cause and treatment for cognitive

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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive enhancers (nootropics) are drugs to treat cognition deficits in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or aging. Cognition refers to a capacity for information processing, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. It involves memory, attention, executive functions, perception, language, and psychomotor functions. The term nootropics was coined in 1972 when memory enhancing properties of piracetam were observed in clinical trials. In the meantime, hundreds of drugs have been evaluated in clinical trials or in preclinical experiments. To classify the compounds, a concept is proposed assigning drugs to 19 categories according to their mechanism(s) of action, in particular drugs interacting with receptors, enzymes, ion channels, nerve growth factors, re-uptake transporters, antioxidants, metal chelators, and disease modifying drugs meaning small molecules, vaccines, and monoclonal antibodies interacting with amyloid-β and tau. For drugs whose mechanism of action is not known, they are either classified according to structure, e.g., peptides, or their origin, e.g., natural products. This review covers the evolution of research in this field over the last 25 years.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 10/2012; 33(3). DOI:10.3233/JAD-2012-121537 · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beta-secretase (BACE1), the enzyme responsible for the first and rate-limiting step in the production of amyloid-beta peptides, is an attractive target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we report the application of the de novo fragment-based molecular design program SPROUT to the discovery of a series of non-peptide BACE1 inhibitors based upon a biphenylacetamide scaffold. The binding affinity of molecules based upon this designed molecular scaffold was increased following the synthesis of a library of optimized ligands whose structures were refined using the recently developed SPROUT-HitOpt software. Although a number of inhibitors were found to exhibit cellular toxicity, one compound in the series was found to have useful BACE1 inhibitory activity in a cellular assay with minimal cellular toxicity.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 02/2013; 56(5). DOI:10.1021/jm301127x · 5.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the demographic shift of the global population toward longer life expectancy, the number of people living with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has rapidly expanded and is projected to triple by the year 2050. Current treatments provide symptomatic relief but do not affect the underlying pathology of the disease. Therapies that prevent or slow the progression of the disease are urgently needed to avoid this growing public health emergency. Insights gained from decades of research have begun to unlock the pathophysiology of this complex disease and have provided targets for disease-modifying therapies. In the last decade, few therapeutic agents designed to modify the underlying disease process have progressed to clinical trials and none have been brought to market. With the focus on disease modification, biomarkers promise to play an increasingly important role in clinical trials. Six biomarkers have now been included in diagnostic criteria for AD and are regularly incorporated into clinical trials. Three biomarkers are neuroimaging measures - hippocampal atrophy measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), amyloid uptake as measured by Pittsburg compound B positron emission tomography (PiB-PET), and decreased fluorodeoxyglucose (18F) uptake as measured by PET (FDG-PET) - and three are sampled from fluid sources - cerebrospinal fluid levels of amyloid β42 (Aβ42), total tau, and phosphorylated tau. Fluid biomarkers are important because they can provide information regarding the underlying biochemical processes that are occurring in the brain. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding the existing and emerging fluid biomarkers and to examine how fluid biomarkers have been incorporated into clinical trials.
    Frontiers in Neurology 09/2015; 6:186. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2015.00186

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