The School-Based Preventive Asthma Care Trial: Results of a Pilot Study
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of the School-Based Preventive Asthma Care Technology (SB-PACT) program, which includes directly observed therapy of preventive asthma medications in school facilitated by Web-based technology for systematic symptom screening, electronic report generation, and medication authorization from providers. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a pilot randomized trial of SB-PACT versus usual care with 100 children (aged 3-10 years) from 19 inner-city schools in Rochester, New York. Outcomes were assessed longitudinally by blinded interviewers. Analyses included bivariate statistics and linear regression models, adjusting for baseline symptoms. RESULTS: There were data for 99 subjects for analysis. We screened all children using the Web-based system, and 44 of 49 treatment group children received directly observed therapy as authorized by their providers. Treatment group children received preventive medications 98% of the time they were in school. Over the school year, children in the treatment group experienced nearly 1 additional symptom-free day over 2 weeks versus the usual care group (11.33 vs 10.40, P = .13). Treatment children also experienced fewer nights with symptoms (1.68 vs 2.20, P = .02), days requiring rescue medications (1.66 vs 2.44, P = .01), and days absent from school due to asthma (0.37 vs 0.85, P = .03) compared with usual care. Further, treatment children had a greater decrease in exhaled nitric oxide (-9.62 vs -0.39, P = .03), suggesting reduction in airway inflammation. CONCLUSION: The SB-PACT intervention demonstrated feasibility and improved outcomes across multiple measures in this pilot study. Future work will focus on further integration of preventive care delivery across community and primary care systems.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To present outcomes of an asthma self-management educational intervention delivered to children (grades 2-5) at school and to parents in a home visit. Methods: The intervention effectiveness was tested in a 12-month longitudinal study with randomization by elementary schools into treatment and attention-control groups with 183 children who had a diagnosis of asthma. Data were collected at four time points. Change over time was examined with linear mixed models. Results: Quality of life, hospitalizations, and emergency department visits improved significantly for all the children. African American and Mexican American children had worse asthma-related quality of life than did white children. Asthma management behaviors, asthma self-efficacy, and coping likewise improved with girls improving significantly more than the boys. Significant improvements in inhaler skill and asthma severity were seen in the treatment group children when compared to the control group. Treatment group parents showed significant improvements in home asthma management and self-efficacy. Conclusions: The improvement in inhaler skill is an important finding for practitioners as this is a behavior that can be addressed in the clinical setting. The reduction in the treatment group's asthma severity scores may reflect the improvement in medication delivery as their inhaler skill improved. The differential improvement between boys and girls points to the need for testing other formats in asthma education that can address different learning styles. The individualized parent asthma education enabled the intervener to incorporate neighborhood and home environmental information thereby allowing for tailoring of parental instruction.Journal of Asthma 11/2013; DOI:10.3109/02770903.2013.855785 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. The evaluation sought to determine if a comprehensive, school-based asthma management program in a small, rural school district helped students improve asthma control. Methods. To determine if students in the asthma program demonstrated better asthma control than students in a comparison school district, the evaluation team used a quasi-experimental, cross-sectional design and administered questionnaires assessing asthma control (which included FEV1 measurement) to 456 students with asthma in the intervention and comparison districts. Data were analyzed for differences in asthma control between students in the two districts. To determine if students in the intervention experienced increased asthma control between baseline and follow-up, the evaluation team used a one-group retrospective design. Program records for 323 students were analyzed for differences in percent of predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) between baseline and follow-up. Results. Students with asthma in the intervention district exhibited significantly better asthma control than students with asthma in the comparison district. Percent of predicted FEV1 did not change significantly between baseline and follow-up for the intervention participants; however, post hoc analyses revealed students with poorly-controlled asthma at baseline had significantly higher FEV1 scores at follow-up, and students with well-controlled asthma at baseline had significantly lower FEV1 scores at follow-up. Conclusions. Findings suggest the comprehensive school-based program led to improvements in asthma control for students with poorly controlled asthma at baseline, and school-based programs need mechanisms for tracking students with initially well-controlled asthma in order to ensure they maintain control.Journal of Asthma 10/2014; 51(8):876-885. DOI:10.3109/02770903.2014.913620 · 1.83 Impact Factor