Article

Improvement of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity retards the progression of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, George M. O'Brien Kidney and Urologic Diseases Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville Veterans Affairs Hospital, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.
Kidney International (Impact Factor: 8.52). 07/2012; DOI: 10.1038/ki.2012.248
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity may be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. To test this, we used the type 2 diabetic db/db mouse (BKS background) model and found impaired eNOS dimerization and phosphorylation along with moderate glomerular mesangial expansion and increased glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickness at 34 weeks of age. Cultured murine glomerular endothelial cells exposed to high glucose had similar alterations in eNOS dimerization and phosphorylation. Treatment with sepiapterin, a stable precursor of the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin, or the nitric oxide precursor L-arginine corrected changes in eNOS dimerization and phosphorylation, corrected permeability defects, and reduced apoptosis. Sepiapterin or L-arginine, administered to db/db mice from weeks 26 to 34, did not significantly alter hyperfiltration or affect mesangial expansion, but reduced albuminuria and GBM thickness, and decreased urinary isoprostane and nitrotyrosine excretion (markers of oxidative stress). Although there was no change in glomerular eNOS monomer expression, both sepiapterin and L-arginine partially reversed the defect in eNOS dimerization and phosphorylation. Hence, our results support an important role for eNOS dysfunction in diabetes and suggest that sepiapterin supplementation might have therapeutic potential in diabetic nephropathy.Kidney International advance online publication, 11 July 2012; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.248.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
75 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many studies have accessed the association between eNOS-4b/a polymorphism and the risk of diabetic nephropathy (DN) among type 2 diabetic subjects. However, the results are conflicting and inconclusive. The aim of current meta-analysis was to more precisely estimate the relationship. Pubmed, Embase, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure and the Wanfang Database were searched for articles published up to May 26th, 2013 that addressed eNOS-4b/a polymorphism and the risk of DN among type 2 diabetic subjects. 18 studies were included in this meta-analysis. eNOS-4b/a polymorphisms were associated with an overall significantly increased risk of DN (allele model: OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.14–1.82; additive model: OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.14–3.62; dominant model: OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.07–1.68; recessive model: OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.12–3.61). Subgroup analysis revealed a significant association between the eNOS-4b/a polymorphism and DN in Asian population, especially in Chinese population, but not in non Asian populations. Our meta-analysis supported an association between the 4b/a polymorphism of eNOS gene and increased risk of DN in type 2 diabetes among Asians, especially in Chinese population.
    Meta Gene. 12/2014; 2:50–62.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Currently available rodent models exhibit characteristics of early diabetic nephropathy (DN) such as hyperfiltration, mesangial expansion, and albuminuria yet features of late DN (hypertension, GFR decline, tubulointerstitial fibrosis) are absent or require a significant time investment for full phenotype development. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to develop a mouse model of advanced DN with hypertension superimposed (HD mice). Mice transgenic for human renin cDNA under the control of the transthyretin promoter (TTRhRen) were employed as a model of angiotensindependent hypertension. Diabetes was induced in TTRhRen mice through low dose streptozotocin (HD-STZ mice) or by intercrossing with OVE26 diabetic mice (HD-OVE mice). Both HD-STZ and HD-OVE mice displayed more pronounced increases in urinary albumin levels as compared with their diabetic littermates. Additionally, HD mice displayed renal hypertrophy, advanced glomerular scarring and evidence of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Both HD-OVE and HD-STZ mice showed evidence of GFR decline as FITC-inulin clearance was decreased compared to hyperfiltering STZ and OVE mice. Taken together our results suggest that HD mice represent a robust model of type I DN that recapitulates key features of human disease which may be significant in studying the pathogenesis of DN and in the assessment of putative therapeutics.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), a shear stress-inducible transcription factor, has endoprotective effects. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, we found that glomerular Klf2 expression was reduced in comparison with nondiabetic rats. However, normalization of hyperglycemia by insulin treatment increased Klf2 expression to a level higher than that of nondiabetic rats. Consistent with this, we found that Klf2 expression was suppressed by high glucose but increased by insulin in cultured endothelial cells. To determine the role of KLF2 in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy, we used endothelial cell-specific Klf2 heterozygous knockout mice and found that diabetic knockout mice developed more kidney/glomerular hypertrophy and proteinuria than diabetic wild-type mice. Glomerular expression of Vegfa, Flk1, and angiopoietin 2 increased, but expression of Flt1, Tie2, and angiopoietin 1 decreased, in diabetic knockout mice compared with diabetic wild-type mice. Glomerular expression of ZO-1, glycocalyx, and eNOS was also decreased in diabetic knockout compared with diabetic wild-type mice. These data suggest knockdown of Klf2 expression in the endothelial cells induced more endothelial cell injury. Interestingly, podocyte injury was also more prominent in diabetic knockout compared with diabetic wild-type mice, indicating a cross talk between these two cell types. Thus, KLF2 may play a role in glomerular endothelial cell injury in early diabetic nephropathy.Kidney International advance online publication, 3 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.286.
    Kidney International 09/2014; · 8.52 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
37 Downloads
Available from
Jun 2, 2014