The primary cilium is an organelle that senses cues in a cell's local environment. Some of these cues constitute molecular signals; here, we investigate the extent to which primary cilia can also sense mechanical stimuli. We used a conditional approach to delete Kif3a in pre-osteoblasts and then employed a motion device that generated a spatial distribution of strain around an intra-osseous implant positioned in the mouse tibia. We correlated interfacial strain fields with cell behaviors ranging from proliferation through all stages of osteogenic differentiation. We found that peri-implant cells in the Col1Cre;Kif3a(fl/fl) mice were unable to proliferate in response to a mechanical stimulus, failed to deposit and then orient collagen fibers to the strain fields caused by implant displacement, and failed to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the lack of a functioning primary cilium blunts the normal response of a cell to a defined mechanical stimulus. The ability to manipulate the genetic background of peri-implant cells within the context of a whole, living tissue provides a rare opportunity to explore mechanotransduction from a multi-scale perspective.
"We first carried out a series of experiments in which implants were placed in the tibia. The surgical procedure, the osseointegration response , and the molecular and cellular characteristics of this process have been documented elsewhere       . Here, we show that new bone, originating from the tibial marrow cavity, is first evident on post-surgical day 5 (Supplemental Fig. 1A). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many of our assumptions concerning oral implant osseointegration are extrapolated from experimental models studying skeletal tissue repair in long bones. This disconnect between clinical practice and experimental research hampers our understanding of bone formation around oral implants and how this process can be improved. We postulated that oral implant osseointegration would be fundamentally equivalent to implant osseointegration elsewhere in the body. Mice underwent implant placement in the edentulous ridge anterior to the first molar and peri-implant tissues were evaluated at various timepoints after surgery. Our hypothesis was disproven; oral implant osseointegration is substantially different from osseointegration in long bones. For example, in the maxilla peri-implant pre-osteoblasts are derived from cranial neural crest whereas in the tibia peri-implant osteoblasts are derived from mesoderm. In the maxilla, new osteoid arises from periostea of the maxillary bone but in the tibia the new osteoid arises from the marrow space. Cellular and molecular analyses indicate that osteoblast activity and mineralization proceeds from the surfaces of the native bone and osteoclastic activity is responsible for extensive remodeling of the new peri-implant bone. In addition to histologic features of implant osseointegration, molecular and cellular assays conducted in a murine model provide new insights into the sequelae of implant placement and the process by which bone is generated around implants.
Bone 07/2013; 58. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2013.07.021 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary cilium is a solitary, immotile microtubule-based extension present on nearly every mammalian cell. This organelle has established mechanosensory roles in several contexts including kidney, liver, and the embryonic node. Mechanical load deflects the cilium, triggering biochemical responses. Defects in cilium function have been associated with numerous human diseases. Recent research has implicated the primary cilium as a mechanosensor in bone. In this review, we discuss the cilium, the growing evidence for its mechanosensory role in bone, and areas of future study. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Osteocytes".
Bone 11/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2012.11.016 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone turnover in vivo is regulated by mechanical forces such as shear stress originating from interstitial oscillatory fluid flow (OFF), and bone cells in vitro respond to mechanical loading. However, the mechanisms by which bone cells sense mechanical forces, resulting in increased mineral deposition, are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the primary cilium in mechanosensing by osteoblasts. MLO-A5 murine osteoblasts were cultured in monolayer and subjected to two different OFF regimens: 5 short (2 h daily) bouts of OFF followed by morphological analysis of primary cilia; or exposure to chloral hydrate to damage or remove primary cilia and 2 short bouts (2 h on consecutive days) of OFF. Primary cilia were shorter and there were fewer cilia per cell after exposure to periods of OFF compared with static controls. Damage or removal of primary cilia inhibited OFF-induced PGE2 release into the medium and mineral deposition, assayed by Alizarin red staining. We conclude that primary cilia are important mediators of OFF-induced mineral deposition, which has relevance for the design of bone tissue engineering strategies and may inform clinical treatments of bone disorders causes by load-deficiency.-Delaine-Smith, R. M., Sittichokechaiwut, A., Reilly, G. C. Primary cilia respond to fluid shear stress and mediate flow-induced calcium deposition in osteoblasts.
The FASEB Journal 10/2013; 28(1). DOI:10.1096/fj.13-231894 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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