The sensory and physiochemical properties of frankfurters with varying fat and salt levels were investigated. Twenty frankfurter formulations were produced with varying concentrations of fat (10%, 15%, 20%, 25% w/w) and salt (1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3% w/w). Frankfurters were assessed instrumentally for colour, moisture, fat, cooking loss and texture profile analysis. Consumers (n=25) evaluated each product in duplicate for colour, coarseness, tenderness, juiciness, salt taste, meat flavour, off-flavour and overall acceptability using a hedonic scale. Salt levels below 1.5% were shown to have a negative effect on consumer acceptability, with 2.5% salt concentration being the most accepted (P<0.001) by consumers. However, frankfurters containing the lower fat levels 10% and 15% fat with higher salt levels (2.5-3%) were significantly the most acceptable variants to consumers. Samples containing less fat and salt were found to be tougher, less juicy and had greater cooking losses. Thus salt perception is very important for consumer acceptability, but fat levels can be potentially reduced without significantly affecting overall acceptability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary guidelines consistently advocate the reduction of fat in the diet and the food industry has responded by introducing a vast range of reduced fat foods on to the market. However, reduced fat diets are difficult for people to maintain. Nutrition education is at a critical crossroads, such that consumers have received the message to reduce fat in the diet, but are unable or unwilling to comply with this information so that overall health status can be improved. Better understanding of the factors that influence fat intake will help to explain why dietary change is so difficult to sustain. Sensory studies and focus group discussions were conducted with consumers to assess their perceptions, acceptance and preferences for reduced fat products. The results implied that consumers associate reduced fat foods with inferior sensory properties and perceive them with a degree of scepticism and mistrust.
British Food Journal 07/2000; 102(7):494-506. DOI:10.1108/00070700010336454 · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sensory and physiochemical properties of sausages with varying fat and salt levels were investigated. Twenty eight sausages were produced with varying concentrations of fat (22.5%, 27.5%, 32.5%, 37.5% w/w) and salt (0.8%, 1%, 1.2%, 1.4%, 1.6%, 2%, 2.4% w/w). Sausages were assessed instrumentally for colour, moisture, fat, cooking loss and texture profile analysis. Consumers (n=25), evaluated each product in duplicate for colour, texture, tenderness, juiciness, salt taste, meat flavour, off-flavour and overall acceptability using a hedonic scale. Lowering fat produced products which consumers rated as less dark in colour, tougher, less juicy and taste less salty than higher fat products. However, no significant preferred sample was found amongst consumers. Salt reduction in products produced sausages which consumers rated as paler in colour, more tender and with greater meat flavour than higher salt containing products. The sausages containing 1.4% and 1.0% salt were significantly (P<0.01) found to be more acceptable to consumers than other salt levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Up to now, it is generally observed that (i) the microbial growth domain is confined by structure-induced stress, or (ii) a solid(-like) environment can enhance microbial survival/growth. In most studies in solid(-like) systems, structure is induced by the addition of gelatin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of other structure-inducing components on the growth dynamics. Both single and binary gel systems are used. Growth is studied when simultaneously exposed to salt stress. Experiments are performed in spectrophotometer tubes, filled with 1 mL of liquid, or structured inoculated brain heart infusion. Four different (combinations of) gelling agents are tested, that is, gelatin, xanthan gum, a 50% combination of xanthan gum and gelatin, and a 50% combination of carrageenan and gelatin. Experiments determine the growth behavior of both Escherichia coli (0% to 0.5% and 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% NaCl) and Salmonella Typhimurium (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% NaCl) at 23.5 and 27 °C. By means of plate counting, the growth dynamics are determined. At the studied conditions, growth of E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium seems independent of the type of structure-inducing component. However, at higher concentrations of salt (>2%), lag phases are typically shorter in solid(-like) systems than in liquid media. For the conditions tested, the effect of a structured environment on growth rate and maximal cell density can be neglected.
This study confirms that predictive models, based on experiments in liquid media cannot be extrapolated to solid media, that is, most food products. Using these models could lead to fail-dangerous predictions.
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