Reactivation West Nile Virus Infection-related Chorioretinitis
Jules Stein Eye Institute, UCLA Department of Ophthalmology, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.Seminars in ophthalmology (Impact Factor: 0.86). 05/2012; 27(3-4):43-5. DOI: 10.3109/08820538.2011.631512
West Nile Virus is a relatively uncommon infection that can involve retinal and choroidal inflammation leading to photopsias, photophobia, and orbital pain. The diagnosis is made by clinical history, serology, and characteristic funduscopic exam and fluorescein angiography findings. Treatment involves primarily supportive care as there are no known effective anti-viral agents. Visual recovery is usually full. Here we present a case of West Nile Virus Infection Related chorioretinitis that demonstrated active linear chorioretinal lesions approximately one year after the initial infection was diagnosed and treated. The patient noted new onset blurry vision and floaters for two weeks prior to presentation. Antibody titers to West Nile Virus increased from baseline levels indicating active infection. This represents the first case of reactivation West Nile Virus Infection Related chorioretinitis that has been documented.
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ABSTRACT: Emergent and resurgent arthropod vector-borne diseases are major causes of systemic morbidity and death and expanding worldwide. Among them, viral and bacterial agents including West Nile virus, Dengue fever, Chikungunya, Rift Valley fever, and rickettsioses have been recently associated with an array of ocular manifestations. These include anterior uveitis, retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis and optic nerve involvement. Proper clinical diagnosis of any of these infectious diseases is based on epidemiological data, history, systemic symptoms and signs, and the pattern of ocular involvement. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by the detection of a specific antibody in serum. Ocular involvement associated with emergent infections usually has a self-limited course, but it can result in persistent visual impairment. There is currently no proven specific treatment for arboviral diseases, and therapy is mostly supportive. Vaccination for humans against these viruses is still in the research phase. Doxycycline is the treatment of choice for rickettsial diseases. Prevention, including public measures to reduce the number of mosquitoes and personal protection, remains the mainstay for arthropod vector disease control. Influenza A (H1N1) virus was responsible for a pandemic human influenza in 2009, and was recently associated with various posterior segment changes.Ophthalmic Research 12/2012; 49(2):66-72. DOI:10.1159/000344009 · 1.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Emergent and resurgent infectious diseases are major causes of systemic morbidity and death that are expanding worldwide mainly because of climate changes and globalization. Among them, specific diseases have been recently associated with ocular involvement. This review presents the ocular manifestations of selected emerging infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist. An array of ocular manifestations, involving mainly the posterior segment, have been recently described in association with specific arthropod vector-borne diseases including rickettsioses, West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever, Dengue fever, and Chikungunya. Influenza A (H1N1) virus has also been recently associated with ocular involvement. On the contrary, with advances in laboratory testing applied to ocular fluids, new infectious agents, mainly viruses, are increasingly being found to be associated with uveitis. Emerging infectious diseases should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, optic neuropathy, or any other ocular inflammatory condition in a patient living in or traveling back from a specific endemic area. On the contrary, ocular fluid sampling and analysis for specific new pathogens can be recommended in selected patients with uveitis of unexplained cause.Current opinion in ophthalmology 09/2013; 24(6). DOI:10.1097/ICU.0b013e3283654e09 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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