Glycemic Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 55.87). 07/2012; 367(2):183; author reply 183. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc1205238#SA4
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ABSTRACT: Combination therapy is usually considered as a promising strategy owing to its advantages such as reduced doses, minimized side effects and improved therapeutic efficiency in a variety of diseases including diabetes. Here we synthesized a new highly intracellular stimuli-sensitive chitosan-graft-metformin (CS-MET) prodrug by imine reaction between oxidative chitosan and metformin for type 2 diabetes (T2D) therapy. Hypothetically, CS-MET functions dually as an anti-diabetes prodrug as well as a gene delivery vector without superfluous materials. CS-MET formed nanocomplexes with therapeutic gene through electrostatic interactions and entered cells by Organic Cation Transporter (OCT)-independent endocytosis. The incorporation of metformin into chitosan has been found to increase endosomal escape via the proton sponge effect. When vector carrying a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) silencing sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), a major transcription factor involved in de novo lipogenisis, it reduced the SREBP mRNA and proteins efficiently. Furthermore, by intraperitoneal injection, CS-MET/shSREBP nanocomplexes effectively knocked down SREBP in livers of western-type diet (WD)-induced obese C57BL/6J mice, markedly reversed insulin resistance and alleviated the fatty liver phenotype without obvious toxic effects. Thus we were able to show that the intracellular stimuli-sensitive CS-MET prodrug renders a potential platform to increase the anti-diabetes activity with synergistic enhancement of gene therapy.Biomaterials 09/2015; 73:149-159. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.09.013 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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