A comparison of impulsivity and sensation seeking in pathological gamblers and skydivers.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare pathological gamblers and skydivers in relation to measures of impulsivity and sensation seeking. The Eysenck Impulsivity Scale - Narrow Impulsiveness Subscale and the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking were administered to pathological gamblers (n = 29), skydivers (n = 93), and a control group (n = 43). A two-way multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to explore differences in impulsivity and sensation seeking between the groups and possible group by gender and group by age interaction effects. The significant effects were further investigated using follow-up univariate analysis of variance. The results showed significant main effects of Group, Gender and Age, and a significant Group by Gender interaction effect. The results showed no statistically significant differences in impulsivity between pathological gamblers and skydivers; however, both groups scored higher than the controls. The skydivers scored higher compared to the pathological gamblers and controls on both sensation seeking subscales. Pathological gamblers scored higher than the controls on the subscale Need for Stimulus Intensity, although lower than the controls on the subscale Need for Novelty. We conclude that skydivers and pathological gamblers do not seem to differ in terms of impulsivity, but that the two groups differ in terms of sensation seeking. Skydivers are hence characterized by more sensation seeking compared to pathological gamblers. Skydiving, as opposed to pathological gambling, is not considered a psychiatric disorder, and skydiving may represent a more non-pathological way to fulfill the need for stimulus intensity.
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ABSTRACT: Three questionnaire studies are reported in which sets of items traditionally used to measure impulsiveness were intercorrelated were correlated with measures of the major personality dimensions E (extraversion), N (neuroticism) and P (psychoticism), and also with the L (lie; dissimulation) scale. It It was found that impulsiveness in the broad sense (ImpB) breaks down into four factors (narrow impusliveness or ImpN, risk-taking, non-planning and liveliness) which are replicable from sample to sample and from males to females. These factors are positively correlated with each other and also with sociability to varying degrees. ImpB correlates quite well with extraversion, but even better with psychoticism; ImpN correlates positively with N and P, suggesting that this trait is somewhat pathological. It is suggested that the distinction between ImpB and ImpN is crucial for the discussion of the nature and measurement of extraversion and also for future experimental work on the causal background and experimental testing of impulsive behaviour patterns.The British journal of social and clinical psychology 03/1977; 16(1):57-68.
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ABSTRACT: A questionnaire consisting of demographic items, questions about gambling behavior, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), a depression inventory, the Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Levenson's Internality, Powerful Others and Chance Scales of locus of control and the Gambling Motivation Scale, was completed by a non-random sample of 147 New Zealand university students who gambled for money, median age 24 years. Approximately 17 of the sample was classified as problem gamblers, the rest as non-problem gamblers. Multivariate analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences between problem and non-problem gamblers on gambling frequency, number of activities, parents' gambling, depression, impulsiveness and motivation, but not on locus of control. Amotivation (apathy) and motivation towards stimulation correlated with powerful others and chance locus of control, and motivation to impress others with powerful others locus of control. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that: (1) beyond gambling frequency, number of activities and parents' gambling, motivation explained a substantial proportion of variance in SOGS scores, with impulsiveness accounting for a lesser amount, and (2) predictors of problem gambling included impulsiveness, amotivation and the motivations for accomplishment and tension release. It was concluded that gambling motivation is a more useful construct than locus of control in explaining problem gambling. Suggestions were made for future research, and aspects of gambling motivation were discussed in terms of a treatment program with groups of problem gamblers.Journal of Gambling Studies 02/2004; 20(4):319-45. · 1.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To present nationally representative data on lifetime prevalence and comorbidity of pathological gambling with other psychiatric disorders and to evaluate sex differences in the strength of the comorbid associations. Data were derived from a large national sample of the United States. Some 43,093 household and group quarters residents age 18 years and older participated in the 2001-2002 survey. Prevalence and associations of lifetime pathological gambling and other lifetime psychiatric disorders are presented. The diagnostic interview was the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version. Fifteen symptom items operationalized the 10 pathological gambling criteria. The lifetime prevalence rate of pathological gambling was 0.42%. Almost three quarters (73.2%) of pathological gamblers had an alcohol use disorder, 38.1% had a drug use disorder, 60.4% had nicotine dependence, 49.6% had a mood disorder, 41.3% had an anxiety disorder, and 60.8% had a personality disorder. A large majority of the associations between pathological gambling and substance use, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders were overwhelmingly positive and significant (p < .05), even after controlling for sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Male sex, black race, divorced/separated/widowed marital status, middle age, and living in the West and Midwest were associated with increased risk for pathological gambling. Further, associations between alcohol dependence, any drug use disorder, drug abuse, nicotine dependence, major depressive episode, and generalized anxiety disorder and pathological gambling were stronger among women than men (p > .05). Pathological gambling is highly comorbid with substance use, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders, suggesting that treatment for one condition should involve assessment and possible concomitant treatment for comorbid conditions.The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 06/2005; 66(5):564-74. · 5.81 Impact Factor