A comparison of impulsivity and sensation seeking in pathological gamblers and skydivers.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare pathological gamblers and skydivers in relation to measures of impulsivity and sensation seeking. The Eysenck Impulsivity Scale - Narrow Impulsiveness Subscale and the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking were administered to pathological gamblers (n = 29), skydivers (n = 93), and a control group (n = 43). A two-way multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to explore differences in impulsivity and sensation seeking between the groups and possible group by gender and group by age interaction effects. The significant effects were further investigated using follow-up univariate analysis of variance. The results showed significant main effects of Group, Gender and Age, and a significant Group by Gender interaction effect. The results showed no statistically significant differences in impulsivity between pathological gamblers and skydivers; however, both groups scored higher than the controls. The skydivers scored higher compared to the pathological gamblers and controls on both sensation seeking subscales. Pathological gamblers scored higher than the controls on the subscale Need for Stimulus Intensity, although lower than the controls on the subscale Need for Novelty. We conclude that skydivers and pathological gamblers do not seem to differ in terms of impulsivity, but that the two groups differ in terms of sensation seeking. Skydivers are hence characterized by more sensation seeking compared to pathological gamblers. Skydiving, as opposed to pathological gambling, is not considered a psychiatric disorder, and skydiving may represent a more non-pathological way to fulfill the need for stimulus intensity.
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ABSTRACT: Impulsivity is considered a personality trait affecting behavior in many life domains, from recreational activities to important decision making. When extreme, it is associated with mental health problems, such as substance use disorders, as well as with interpersonal and social difficulties, including juvenile delinquency and criminality. Yet, trait impulsivity may not be a unitary construct. We review commonly used self-report measures of personality trait impulsivity and related constructs (e.g., sensation seeking), plus the opposite pole, control or constraint. A meta-analytic principal-components factor analysis demonstrated that these scales comprise 3 distinct factors, each of which aligns with a broad, higher order personality factor-Neuroticism/Negative Emotionality, Disinhibition versus Constraint/Conscientiousness, and Extraversion/Positive Emotionality/Sensation Seeking. Moreover, Disinhibition versus Constraint/Conscientiousness comprise 2 correlated but distinct subfactors: Disinhibition versus Constraint and Conscientiousness/Will versus Resourcelessness. We also review laboratory tasks that purport to measure a construct similar to trait impulsivity. A meta-analytic principal-components factor analysis demonstrated that these tasks constitute 4 factors (Inattention, Inhibition, Impulsive Decision-Making, and Shifting). Although relations between these 2 measurement models are consistently low to very low, relations between both trait scales and laboratory behavioral tasks and daily-life impulsive behaviors are moderate. That is, both independently predict problematic daily-life impulsive behaviors, such as substance use, gambling, and delinquency; their joint use has incremental predictive power over the use of either type of measure alone and furthers our understanding of these important, problematic behaviors. Future use of confirmatory methods should help to ascertain with greater precision the number of and relations between impulsivity-related components. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).Psychological Bulletin 10/2013; · 15.58 Impact Factor
Personality and Social Psychology
Retracted: A comparison of impulsivity and sensation seeking in
pathological gamblers and skydivers
HELGA MYRSETH,1,2RENATE TVERA ˚,1SUSANNE HAGATUN1and CAMILLA LINDGREN1
1Department of Psychosocial Sciences, University of Bergen, Norway
2Department of Education, University of Bergen, Norway
The following article from Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ‘‘A comparison of impulsivity and sensation seeking in pathological gamblers and skydi-
vers’’ by Helga Myrseth, Renate Tvera ˚, Susanne Hagatun and Camilla Lindgren, published online on 19th September 2011 in Wiley Online Library (http://
www.wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Professor Jerker Ro ¨nnberg, and Blackwell
Publishing Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to the inclusion of certain data within the published work that has been used without confirming with
Dr. Helge Molde that the data could be utilized in the study as it had been used in previous studies.
Helga Myrseth, Department of Education, Chr. gt 13, P.B. 7807, N-5020 Bergen, Norway. Tel: + 47 55 58 88 78; fax: + 47 55 58 98 79;
? 2012 The Authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Psychology ? 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 9600 Garsington
Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK and 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148, USA. ISSN 0036-5564.
Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 2012, 53, IDOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2011.00917.x