Article

Utility of Toe-brachial Index for Diagnosis of Peripheral Artery Disease

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Gumi, Korea.
Archives of plastic surgery 05/2012; 39(3):227-31. DOI: 10.5999/aps.2012.39.3.227
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) is a simple, useful method for diagnosing peripheral artery disease (PAD). Although the ABI is an objective diagnostic method, it has limited reliability in certain scenarios. The aim of the present study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of the toe brachial index (TBI) as a diagnostic tool for detecting stenosis in PAD, associated with normal or low ABI values.
ABI and TBI values were measured in 15 patients with diabetic gangrene who were suspected of having lower extremity arterial insufficiency. The ABI and TBI values were measured using a device that allowed the simultaneous measurement of systolic blood pressure in the upper and lower extremities. In addition, the ABI and TBI values were compared pre- and post-angiography.
Patients with an ABI of 0.9-1.3 showed almost no difference between the 2 measurements. The patients with TBI >0.6 had no arterial insufficiency. The patients with TBI <0.6 required vascular intervention with ballooning. After the angiography, the gangrenous wounds decreased in size more rapidly than they did prior to the intervention.
Our findings suggest that TBI is the method of choice for evaluating lower limb perfusion disorders. This result requires further studies of TBI in a larger number of patients. Future long-term studies should therefore evaluate the utility of TBI as a means of screening for PAD and the present findings should be regarded as preliminary outcomes.

1 Follower
 · 
543 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Transcutaneous partial oxygen tension (TcpO(2)) is considered the gold standard for assessment of tissue oxygenation, which is an essential factor for wound healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between macrocirculation and TcpO(2) in persons with diabetes mellitus. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Ninety-eight patients with diabetic foot ulcers participated in the study (61 men and 37 women). The subjects had a mean age of 66.6 years (range, 30-83 years) and were treated at the Diabetic Wound Center of Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. METHODS: Macrocirculation was evaluated using 2 techniques: computed tomographic angiography and Doppler ultrasound. Macrocirculation scores were based on the patency of the two tibial arteries in 98 patients. Computed tomographic angiography and Doppler ultrasound scores (0-4 points) were given according to intraluminal filling defects and arterial pulse waveform of each vessel, respectively. Tissue oxygenation was measured by TcpO(2). Macrocirculation scores were statistically analyzed as a function of the TcpO(2). RESULTS: Statistical analysis revealed no significant linear trend between the macrocirculation status and TcpO(2). Biavariate analysis using the Fisher exact test, Mantel-Haenszel tests, and McNemar-Bowker tests also found no significant relationship between macrocirculation and TcpO(2). CONCLUSIONS: Computed tomographic angiography and Doppler ultrasound are not sufficiently reliable substitutes for TcpO(2) measurements in regard to determining the optimal treatment for diabetic patients.
    Journal of WOCN 09/2014; 41(5):430-435. DOI:10.1097/WON.0000000000000060 · 1.00 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The goal of salvage surgery in the diabetic foot is maximal preservation of the limb, but it is also important to resect unviable tissue sufficiently to avoid reamputation. This study aims to provide information on determining the optimal amputation level that allows preservation of as much limb length as possible without the risk of further reamputation by analyzing several predictive factors. Between April 2004 and July 2013, 154 patients underwent limb salvage surgery for distal diabetic foot gangrene. According to the final level of amputation, the patients were divided into two groups: Patients with primary success of the limb salvage, and patients that failed to heal after the primary limb salvage surgery. The factors predictive of success, including comorbidity, laboratory findings, and radiologic findings were evaluated by a retrospective chart review. The mean age of the study population was 63.9 years, with a male-to-female ratio of approximately 2:1. The mean follow-up duration was 30 months. Statistical analysis showed that underlying renal disease, limited activity before surgery, a low hemoglobin level, a high white blood cell count, a high C-reactive protein level, and damage to two or more vessels on preoperative computed tomography (CT) angiogram were significantly associated with the success or failure of limb salvage. The five-year survival rate was 81.6% for the limb salvage success group and 36.4% for the limb salvage failure group. This study evaluated the factors predictive of the success of limb salvage surgery and identified indicators for preserving as much as possible of the leg of a patient with diabetic foot. This should help surgeons to establish the appropriate amputation level for a case of diabetic foot and help prevent consecutive operations.
    BMC Surgery 12/2014; 14(1):113. DOI:10.1186/1471-2482-14-113 · 1.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arterial calcification may render the ankle-brachial index (ABI) unreliable in diabetic patients. Although guidelines recommend the toe-brachial index (TBI) for patients with falsely elevated ABI arbitrarily defined as an ABI > 1.4, arterial calcification is also common among diabetic patients with an ABI ≤ 1.4. This could result in a "falsely normalized" ABI and under-diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We investigated whether diabetes invalidates the ABI as opposed to the TBI, and if the TBI may therefore be more suitable for detecting PAD in diabetic patients. The difference between ABI and TBI was compared between diabetic and non-diabetic patients with an ABI ≤ 1.4 referred to the vascular laboratory. A Bland-Altman plot was constructed to assess whether ABI-TBI differences were dependent on the magnitude of the measurements. Subgroup analyses were performed for patients with a normal ABI, and for patients with critical ischemia. The population comprised 161 diabetic (252 limbs) and 160 non-diabetic (253 limbs) patients (mean age 67). Median ABIs (0.79 vs. 0.80) were similar, while median TBI was 0.07 higher in diabetics (p = 0.024). The ABI-TBI difference in diabetics and non-diabetics was similar (0.32 vs. 0.35; p = .084), and was also similar for patients with a normal ABI. Moreover, ABI-TBI differences in diabetic- and non-diabetic patients overlapped, irrespective of the magnitude of the measurements. Diabetes was not associated with larger differences between ankle and toe pressures (mean difference -0.9 mmHg, 95% confidence interval -15 to 13 mmHg) among patients with critical ischemia. No evidence was found that the TBI may overcome the potentially invalidated ABI in diabetic patients with an ABI ≤ 1.4. ABI and TBI are strongly associated, and this relationship is not influenced by diabetes. Therefore, the TBI does not allow for earlier detection of ischemia in diabetes. Copyright © 2014 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Preview (2 Sources)

Download
7 Downloads
Available from