Acquisition of anoikis resistance through CD147 upregulation: A new mechanism underlying metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237.
Oncology letters (Impact Factor: 0.99). 06/2012; 3(6):1249-1254. DOI: 10.3892/ol.2012.658
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Acquisition of anoikis resistance is a prerequisite for the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Activation of growth factor signaling pathways and rearrangement of the cytoskeleton have been reported as vital steps in this process. However, key molecules involved in anoikis resistance remain to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CD147 on HCC cells resistant to anoikis. The human SMMC-7221 human HCC cell line was used. Immunofluorescence was used to investigate the expression levels of CD147. Anoikis-induced cell death was assessed using trypan blue exclusion. In the present study, the results showed that SMMC-7721 HCC cells exhibited significant morphological changes when suspended in culture medium supplemented with 1% methocel and a subpopulation of cells resistant to anoikis was acquired with higher viability and invasion ability. CD147 was identified to be significantly increased in cells resistant to anoikis, when compared to the parental cells. CD147 knockdown by siRNA notably induced cell anoikis, partially through the inactivation of PI3K/Akt pathway. All of these evidence provide a novel CD147-related mechanism underlying the metastasis of HCC cells.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HAb18G/CD147 belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and predominantly functions as an inducer of matrix metalloproteinase secretion for tumor invasion and metastasis. This study was designed to investigate the effects of HAb18G/CD147 knockout on hepatocellular carcinoma cells using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFNs)-targeted gene knockout approach. The HCC cell line SMMC-7721 was used for ZFNs-targeted cleavage of the HAb18G/CD147 gene. RT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to detect HAb18G/CD147 expression. HAb18G phenotypic changes following HAb18G/CD147 knockout in SMMC-K7721 cells were assessed using tumor cell adhesion, invasion, migration and colony formation and flow cytometric assays. These data demonstrated that tumor cell adhesion, invasion, migration, and colony formation capabilities of SMMC-K7721 were significantly reduced compared to parental cells or SMMC-7721 with re-expression of HAb18G/CD147 protein transfected with HAb18G/CD147 cDNA. Moreover, knockout of HAb18G/CD147 expression also induced SMMC-K7721 cells to undergo apoptosis compared to SMMC-7721 and SMMC-R7721 (P < 0.01). Molecularly, protein expression of p53 was induced in these cells, but re-expression of HAb18G/CD147 reduced p53 levels in SMMC-R7721 cells, possibly through inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-MDM2 signaling pathway. The findings provide a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying HAb18G/CD147-induced progression of HCC cells.
    Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics 10/2014; 71(2). DOI:10.1007/s12013-014-0278-9 · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose Hypoxia is a vital factor in supporting and directing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. HIF-1 transactivates target genes involved in metabolic reprogramming and antiapoptosis under hypoxia. However, key molecules involved in HCC hypoxia adaptation remain to be characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism and biological function of CD147 on HCC cells resistant to apoptosis under hypoxic conditions. Methods Apoptotic rates of hypoxia-treated HCC cells were investigated by flow cytometer, and the expression levels of CD147, HIF-1α, MCT-1 and MCT-4 were assayed by immune blot. The in vitro glycolytic capacity was investigated in SMMC-7721 cells and 7721-shCD147 cells (CD147 is stably knocked down). Immunohistochemical staining of CD147, Glut-1, MCT-1, MCT-4, LAT-1 and CD98 was detected in tumor tissues from a xenograft model. Immunofluorescence double-labeled staining allowed further exploration of the expression levels and localizations of CD147, MCT-1 and MCT-4. Results Upregulation of CD147 under hypoxia correlates with higher viability of HCC cells compared with that in HSC cells. Silencing of CD147 significantly inhibited the glycolytic rate and induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells. The expression level of lactate secretion transporter MCT-1/MCT-4 is dependent on CD147, while the expression level of Glut-1, LAT-1 and CD98 remained unchanged. Particularly, MCT-4 is demonstrated to be essential for the membranal localization of CD147. Conclusions With the above findings, we conclude that within the HCC hypoxic microenvironment, upregulation of CD147 and MCT-4 involved in glycolytic reprogramming is decisively important for the viability of HCC cells under hypoxia adaptation.
    Hepatology International 07/2014; 8(3):405-414. DOI:10.1007/s12072-014-9536-6 · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: CD147 or EMMPRIN is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily in humans. It is widely expressed in human tumors and plays a central role in the progression of many cancers by stimulating the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cytokines. CD147 regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor cell migration, metastasis and differentiation, especially under hypoxic conditions. CD147 is also important to many organ systems. This review will provide a detailed overview of the discovery, characterization, molecular structure, diverse biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of CD147 in human physiological and pathological processes. In particular, recent studies have demonstrated the potential application of CD147 not only as a phenotypic marker of activated regulatory T cells but also as a potential diagnostic marker for early-stage disease. Moreover, CD147 is recognized as an effective therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other cancers, and exciting clinical progress has been made in HCC treatment using CD147-directed monoclonal antibodies.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 10/2014; 15(10):17411-17441. DOI:10.3390/ijms151017411 · 2.34 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 30, 2014