Efficacy and tolerability of oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) in a laboratory model of visceral leishmaniasis
ABSTRACT The alkylphospholipid oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) is a structural analogue of miltefosine and may represent a potential therapeutic backup for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). This laboratory study compared the in vitro and in vivo activity profile of both OlPC and miltefosine.
The in vitro potency of OlPC was compared with that of miltefosine, amphotericin B, paromomycin and pentavalent antimony (Sb(V)) using the intracellular amastigote assay on different Old World and New World Leishmania species. The in vivo efficacy was dose titrated in the Leishmania infantum hamster model after infection with 2 × 10(7) amastigotes (day 0) and oral treatment at day 21 using an aqueous (OlPC/H(2)O) and liposomal formulation of OlPC in single and repeated (5 day) oral dosing regimens. The amastigote reductions in the liver, spleen and bone marrow were assessed (day 35).
The in vitro activity of OlPC against Leishmania donovani, L. infantum, Leishmania tropica, Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania panamensis showed mean IC(50) values <5 μM, while the IC(50) values for Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis were 7.7 and 13.5 μM, respectively. These results are fairly similar to those obtained for miltefosine. In the hamster model, treatment with 20 and 40 mg/kg for 5 days proved that both OlPC formulations were equipotent and showed a markedly higher efficacy compared with miltefosine. A single dosing of 100 mg/kg of OlPC/H(2)O or OlPC liposomes reduced the parasite burdens by 96.2% and 99.3% in liver, 99.8% and 99.9% in spleen, and 87.6% and 96.9% in bone marrow, respectively. No signs of toxicity or adverse drug-related effects were noted.
These data suggest that OlPC may become a promising candidate to improve and simplify current case management of VL. Additional pharmacological and pharmacokinetic studies are ongoing to assess the full potential of OlPC as a 'drug candidate'.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Although leishmaniasis is estimated to cause the ninth largest disease burden among individual infectious diseases, it is still one of the most neglected diseases in terms of drug development. Current drugs are highly toxic, resistance is common and compliance of patients to treatment is low, as treatment is long and drug price is high.Areas covered: In this review, the authors carried out a patent landscape in search for new perspectives for leishmaniasis therapy. This search encompassed patent documents having priority date between 1994 and 2014. Selected compounds were compared to current anti-leishmanial drugs regarding efficacy and toxicity, when experimental data were available.Expert opinion: Most patents related to drugs for leishmaniasis have not been produced by the pharmaceutical industry but rather by public research institutes or by universities, and the majority of the inventions disclosed are still in preclinical phase. There is an urgent need to find new ways of funding research for leishmaniasis drugs, incentivizing product development partnerships and pushing forward innovation.Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents 12/2014; 25(3). DOI:10.1517/13543776.2014.993969 · 3.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) has become increasingly common and is characterised by high morbidity and mortality. Upcoming resistance threatens treatment with azoles and highlights the continuous need for novel therapeutics. This laboratory study investigated the in vitro and in vivo potential of the alkylphospholipid oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) against Aspergillus. In vitro activities of OlPC, miltefosine, posaconazole and voriconazole were determined for Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus and A. flavus. In vivo efficacy of OlPC was evaluated in a systemic A. fumigatus mouse model, adopting a short-term and long-term oral or intraperitoneal dosing regimen. OlPC showed good in vitro activity against A. fumigatus (IC50 = 1.04 μmol l(-1) ). Intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1) OlPC significantly reduced the fungal organ burdens at 4 days post-infection (dpi). Although 5- and 10-day OlPC treatment improved survival, organ burdens were not affected at 10 and 15 dpi. While this study showed excellent in vitro activity of OlPC against Aspergillus spp., its therapeutic efficacy in an acute mouse model for IA was less convincing. Given the limited therapeutic options in the current antifungal market for invasive infections, OlPC activity should be assessed in a less stringent in vivo model, potentially in combination treatment with other already marketed antifungal drugs. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.Mycoses 01/2015; 58(3). DOI:10.1111/myc.12286 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The only oral drug available for the treatment of leishmaniasis is miltefosine, described and approved for visceral leishmaniasis in India. Miltefosine is under evaluation for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Americas although its efficacy for the treatment of human visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum chagasi has not been described. Drug efficacy for visceral leishmaniasis is ideally tested in hamsters, an experimental model that mimics human disease. Luciferase has been validated as a quantitative tool for the determination of parasite burden in experimental leishmaniasis. However, there are no reports of luciferase detection in the model of progressive visceral leishmaniasis in hamsters. Therefore, the aims of this study were to generate recombinant Leishmania infantum chagasi expressing the luciferase gene (Lc-LUC), characterize the biological properties of this transgenic line as compared with the wild-type parasites and evaluate miltefosine effectiveness in Lc-LUC infected hamsters. A transgenic line containing a luciferase encoding gene integrated into the ribosomal DNA locus was obtained and shown to produce bioluminescence which correlated with the number of parasites. Lc-LUC growth curves and susceptibility to pentavalent antimony and miltefosine in vitro were indistinguishable from the wild-type parasites. The effectiveness of pentavalent antimony was evaluated in Lc-LUC infected hamsters through bioimaging and determination of Leishman Donovan Units. Both methods showed concordant results. Miltefosine was effective in the treatment of Lc-LUC-infected hamsters, as demonstrated by the reduction in parasite burden in a dose-dependent manner and by prolongation of animal survival. Luciferase expressing parasites are a reliable alternative for parasite burden quantification in hamsters with advantages such as the possibility of estimating parasite load before drug treatment and therefore allowing distribution of animals in groups with equivalent mean parasite burden. Miltefosine was effective in vivo in an L. infantum chagasi experimental model of infection.PLoS neglected tropical diseases 02/2015; 9(2):e0003556. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003556 · 4.72 Impact Factor