Influenza Pandemics-Pregnancy, Pathogenesis, and Perinatal Outcomes

JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 07/2012; 308(2):184-5. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2012.7911
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: As pregnant women are considered a high-risk group for severe influenza illness, current recommendations advise vaccination of all pregnant women with inactivated influenza vaccine. Nevertheless, rates of maternal influenza vaccination have historically been low, possibly reflecting ongoing concerns about vaccine safety. Until recently, the majority of evidence concerning safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy was limited to post-marketing pharmacovigilance studies; however, in the past 5 years, one randomized clinical trial and a number of observational studies reflecting seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines and monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccines have been published. This review summarizes the evidence pertaining to fetal and neonatal outcomes following influenza vaccination during pregnancy for comparative analytic studies published between 2008 and August 2013. Since the majority of these studies are observational in nature, issues related to study quality are also addressed.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2013; 12(12):1417-30. DOI:10.1586/14760584.2013.851607 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza A viruses, in comparison to B and C group of viruses possess a broader host range, infecting many different mammalian and avian species including humans, fowl, pigs, horses, dogs, cats, tiger, and other mammals such as mink, seals and whales. Influenza A viruses, based on the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins, are further classified into subtypes. There are 18 HA subtypes and 11 NA subtypes for influenza A viruses. Transmission of Influenza viruses may occur either directly, through airborne route or indirectly from infected host or contaminated surfaces. Pigs exhibit a unique role as the mixing vessel for the genetic reassortment of different influenza viruses. Avian influenza (Avian flu/Fowl plague) is among the most fearful viral diseases of birds, particularly affecting domesticated birds with very high flock mortality, resulting in enormous economic losses to poultry industry worldwide. The disease affects a wide range of feral migratory birds subclinically and these birds are crucial for the spread of the disease. The flu virus is becoming more and more dangerous especially in the last 10 years. Equine influenza, canine and feline influenza are of less significance compared to avian and swine flu. Influenza A, B, and C viruses are capable of infecting man and the incidence of human flu is more during winters in temperate countries, whereas it is more common during winters and rainy seasons in tropical and subtropical countries. Influenza viruses are always imposing a constant threat to mankind because of its perpetual evolving and reemerging nature, extremely high range of hosts, speedy transmission, lack and limitation of effective control and vaccination strategies and fatal consequences.
    Insight into Influenza Viruses of Animals and Humans, 01/2014: pages 65-86; , ISBN: 978-3-319-05511-4
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    ABSTRACT: Comprehensive overview of properties, replication, evolution, emergence and epidemiology of the influenzas viruses, especially those having zoonotic potential Extensive description of the diseases, their diagnosis, prevention and control strategies of various influenza viruses An all encompassing book on influenza viruses covering a wide spectrum of areas enriched with latest information for researchers as well as for professionals and veterinarians This book provides salient information on all aspects of influenza/flu viruses affecting animals and humans. It specifically reviews the properties and replication of influenza viruses; their evolution and emergence; epidemiology; role of migratory birds in disease transmission; clinical signs in humans, animals, and poultry; pathogenesis and pathogenicity; public health importance and potential threats; diagnosis; prevention and control measures; and pandemic preparedness. Influenza/flu viruses evolve continuously and jump species causing epidemics as well as pandemics in both human and animals. During the past 150 years, various strains of influenza virus like the Spanish flu, Asian flu, Hong Kong flu, bird flu, and swine flu were responsible for high mortality in humans as well as birds. High mutation rates, antigenic shifts, drifts, reassortment phenomena, and the development of antiviral drug resistance all contribute to ineffective chemotherapy and vaccines against influenza viruses. Due to their devastating nature, high zoonotic implications, and high mortality in humans and poultry, they have a severe impact on the socioeconomic status of countries. Disease awareness, rapid and accurate diagnosis, surveillance, strict biosecurity, timely adoption of appropriate preventive and control measures, and pandemic preparedness are crucial to help in decreasing virus transmission, thus reducing clinical cases, deaths, and pandemic threats
    Edited by Sanjay Kapoor and Kuldeep Dhama, 04/2014; Springer International Publishing Switzerland., ISBN: 978-3-319-05512-1
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