Evidence for excited state intramolecular charge transfer in benzazole-based pseudo-stilbenes.
ABSTRACT Two azo compounds were obtained through the diazotization reaction of aminobenzazole derivatives and N,N-dimethylaniline using clay montmorillonite KSF as catalyst. The synthesized dyes were characterized using elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and (13)C and (1)H NMR spectroscopy in solution. Their photophysical behavior was studied using UV-vis and steady-state fluorescence in solution. These dyes present intense absorption in the blue region. The spectral features of the azo compounds can be related to the pseudo-stilbene type as well as the E isomer of the dyes. Excitation at the absorption maxima does not produce emissive species in the excited state. However, excitation around 350 nm allowed dual emission of fluorescence, from both a locally excited (LE, short wavelength) and an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT, long wavelength) state, which was corroborated by a linear relation of the fluorescence maximum (ν(max)) versus the solvent polarity function (Δf) from the Lippert-Mataga correlation. Evidence of TICT in these dyes was discussed from the viscosity dependence of the fluorescence intensity in the ICT emission band. Theoretical calculations were also performed in order to study the geometry and charge distribution of the dyes in their ground and excited electronic states. Using DFT methods at the theoretical levels BLYP/Aug-cc-pVDZ, for geometry optimizations and frequency calculations, and B3LYP/6-311+G(2d), for single-point energy evaluations, the calculations revealed that the least energetic and most intense photon absorption leads to a very polar excited state that relaxes non-radioactively, which can be associated with photochemical isomerization.
- Chemical Reviews 11/2003; 103(10):3899-4032. · 41.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The planar rigidized molecule fluorazene (FPP) undergoes fast reversible intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) in the excited state, with a reaction time of 12 ps in the polar solvent ethyl cyanide at -45 degrees C. The ICT state of FPP has a dipole moment mu(e)(ICT) of 13 D, much larger than that of the locally excited state LE (1 D). The ICT behavior of FPP is similar to that of its flexible counterpart N-phenylpyrrole (PP), for which mu(e)(ICT) = 12 D. These results show that intramolecular charge transfer to a planar ICT state can occur efficiently. In designing ICT systems capable of rapid switching, it is therefore important to realize that large amplitude motions such as those necessary for the formation of a twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state are not required.Journal of the American Chemical Society 08/2004; 126(27):8535-9. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two Schiff bases were synthesized by reaction of 2-(4'-aminophenyl)benzoxazole derivatives with 4-N,N-diethylaminobenzaldehyde. UV-visible (UV-vis) and steady-state fluorescence in solution were applied in order to characterize its photophysical behavior. The Schiff bases present absorption in the UV region with fluorescence emission in the blue-green region, with a large Stokes' shift. The UV-vis data indicates that each dye behaves as two different chromophores in solution in the ground state. The fluorescence emission spectra of the dye 5a show that an intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) mechanism takes place in the excited state, whereas a twisted internal charge transfer (TICT) state is observed for the dye 5b. Theoretical calculations were performed in order to study the conformation and polarity of the molecules at their ground and excited electronic states. Using density functional theory (DFT) methods at theoretical levels BLYP/Aug-SV(P) for geometry optimizations and B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,p) for single-point energy evaluations, the calculations indicate that the lowest energy conformations are in all cases nonplanar and that the dipole moments of the excited state relaxed structures are much larger than those of the ground state structures, which corroborates the experimental UV-vis absorption results.The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 11/2011; 115(46):13390-8. · 2.77 Impact Factor