FOLFOX-4 Regimen or Single-agent Gemcitabine as First-line Chemotherapy in Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES:: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare 2 different chemotherapy regimens for advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC). METHODS:: Records of patients consecutively treated in our institution for advanced BTC from 2001 to 2006 were retrieved. Chemotherapy treatment with FOLFOX-4 regimen was routinely offered as first option; gemcitabine (GEM) as single agent was proposed as an alternative option to patients who refused central venous catheter implantation. Toxicity, overall response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) obtained with the 2 treatments were evaluated. RESULTS:: Twenty-two patients were treated with FOLFOX-4, whereas 18 patients received GEM. In the FOLFOX-4 group, the overall response rate was 13.6% [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.7-33.3], with 1 complete response and 2 partial responses, and 54.5% (95% CI, 34.7-73.1) of disease control rate (complete response+partial response+stable disease). Median OS was 14.1 months (95% CI, 9.1-18.8) and median PFS 5.44 months (95% CI, 3.2-6.3). In the GEM group, we observed no objective response, whereas 27.7% (95% CI, 12.5-50.9) obtained disease control. Median OS was 8.3 months (95% CI, 4.7-12.9) and median PFS 3.9 months (95% CI, 2.2-5.4). Toxicity, mainly hematological, was acceptable for both treatments. On a multivariable Cox model including a propensity score, only the performance status and chemotherapy regimen were confirmed as strong predictors of OS, with an hazard ratio of 0.49 (95% CI, 0.24-0.99) in favor of FOLFOX-4. CONCLUSIONS:: The combination chemotherapy with oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil is well tolerated and seems to provide prolonged survival than GEM alone in advanced BTC treatment, but further randomized trials are warranted.
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ABSTRACT: The incidence rates of cholangiocarcinoma (CC) vary greatly among different areas of the world, and this variation is related to distribution of risk factors. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC) have different epidemiological features. Recent data show that the incidence and mortality rates of ICC have been increasing in several areas around the world. On the other hand, the incidence and mortality rates of ECC have been decreasing. For example, in the United States, the age-adjusted incidence rates of ICC increased by 165% from 0.32 per 100,000 in 1975 to 1979 to 0.85 per 100,000 in 1995 to 1999, whereas ECC declined by 14%. In the meantime, there has been very little improvement in long-term survival, which remains dismal (3.5%). Men are affected 1.5 times more than women are, and Asians are affected almost 2 times more than whites and blacks. There are few well-established risk factors for CC, including primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver fluke infestations, hepatolithiasis, Thorotrast exposure, and choledochal cysts. None of these risk factors can explain the recent increasing trends of ICC in the United States. Some data, however, point to a potential role for chronic liver disease, hepatitis C, and probably hepatitis B infections in the development of ICC.Seminars in Liver Disease 06/2004; 24(2):115-25. · 8.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Owing to the lack of randomised controlled trials no standard of chemotherapy exists in the treatment of advanced biliary tract carcinoma. 5-fluorouracil or gemcitabine is recommended based on small and predominately phase II trials. The aim of this analysis was to analyse existing trials, even small and nonrandomised, and identify superior regimens. Chemotherapy trials published in English from 1985 to July 2006 were analysed as well as ASCO abstracts from 1999 to 2006. Response rate (RR=CR+PR), tumour control rate (TCR=CR+PR+SD), time to tumour progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), and toxicity were analysed. One hundred and four trials comprising 112 trial arms and 2810 patients, thereof 634 responders and 1368 patients with tumour control were analysed. Pooled RR and TCR were 22.6 and 57.3%, respectively. Significant correlations of RR and TCR with survival times were found. Subgroup analysis showed superior RRs for gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) compared with cholangiocarcinoma, but shorter OS for GBC. Furthermore, superior RRs and TCRs of gemcitabine and platinum containing regimens were found with highest RRs and TCRs in the combination subgroup. Based on published results of predominately phase II trials, gemcitabine combined with platinum compounds represents the provisional standard of chemotherapy in advanced biliary tract cancer, unless a new evidence-based standard has been defined.British Journal of Cancer 04/2007; 96(6):896-902. · 5.08 Impact Factor