Murine P-glycoprotein Deficiency Alters Intestinal Injury Repair and Blunts Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Radioprotection.
ABSTRACT P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been reported to increase stem cell proliferation and regulate apoptosis. Absence of P-gp results in decreased repair of intestinal epithelial cells after chemical injury. To further explore the mechanisms involved in the effects of P-gp on intestinal injury and repair, we used the well-characterized radiation injury model. In this model, injury repair is mediated by production of prostaglandins (PGE(2)) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to confer radioprotection. B6.mdr1a(-/-) mice and wild-type controls were subjected to 12 Gy total body X-ray irradiation and surviving crypts in the proximal jejunum and distal colon were evaluated 3.5 days after irradiation. B6.mdr1a(-/-) mice exhibited normal baseline stem cell proliferation and COX dependent crypt regeneration after irradiation. However, radiation induced apoptosis was increased and LPS-induced radioprotection was blunted in the C57BL6.mdr1a(-/-) distal colon, compared to B6 wild-type controls. The LPS treatment induced gene expression of the radioprotective cytokine IL-1α, in B6 wild-type controls but not in B6.mdr1a(-/-) animals. Lipopolysaccharid-induced radioprotection was absent in IL-1R1(-/-) animals, indicating a role for IL-1α in radioprotection, and demonstrating that P-gp deficiency interferes with IL-1α gene expression in response to systemic exposure to LPS.
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ABSTRACT: Two receptors for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) have been cloned and characterized biochemically. While it has been well established that the type I (80-kDa) IL-1 receptor can mediate responses to IL-1, the function of the type II (60-kDa) IL-1 receptor has been unknown. In this manuscript we describe experiments designed to ask whether the type II receptor is capable of delivering a biological signal. We have examined two types of experimental situation: responses to IL-1 in cells which express predominantly the type II receptor, and responses to IL-1 which have been suggested previously in the literature to be mediated by type II receptors. In both situations we find that the responses instead are mediated via type I receptors. A blocking antibody against the type II receptor never inhibits, and in fact sometimes enhances, the responses. We conclude that a very small number of type I receptors is sufficient to mediate all of the actions of IL-1 which we have examined here and that the function of the type II receptor may not be to transduce signals.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/1993; 90(13):6155-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We used coding and noncoding polymorphisms evenly spaced across the ABCB1/MDR1 gene to perform association analysis in Slovenian patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and to obtain haplotype structure and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the MDR1 gene. A disease association study was performed in 307 IBD patients, including 144 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 163 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), and 355 healthy controls. Here we report an association between MDR1 alleles, polymorphisms and haplotypes and refractory CD patients, who do not respond to standard therapy, including patients who develop fistulas. We also report an association with UC and MDR1 polymorphisms in a Slovenian population. Haplotypes significantly associated with diseases were defined by single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in exons 12 (1236 C>A), 21(A893S), and 26 (3435 C>T). In addition, two intronic SNPs in LD with the disease haplotype, one in intron 13 (rs2235035) and another in intron 16 (rs1922242), were significantly associated with refractory Crohn (P=0.026, odds ratio (OR) 2.7 and P=0.025, OR 2.8, respectively), as well as with UC (P=0.006, OR 1.8 and P=0.026, OR 1.9, respectively). Our results suggest that MDR1 is a potential target for therapy in refractory CD patients and in patients with UC.Genes and Immunity 11/2004; 5(7):530-9. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibody MRK16 was used to determine the location of P-glycoprotein, the product of the multidrug-resistance gene (MDR1), in normal human tissues. The protein was found to be concentrated in a small number of specific sites. Most tissues examined revealed very little P-glycoprotein. However, certain cell types in liver, pancreas, kidney, colon, and jejunum showed specific localization of P-glycoprotein. In liver, P-glycoprotein was found exclusively on the biliary canalicular front of hepatocytes and on the apical surface of epithelial cells in small biliary ductules. In pancreas, P-glycoprotein was found on the apical surface of the epithelial cells of small ductules but not larger pancreatic ducts. In kidney, P-glycoprotein was found concentrated on the apical surface of epithelial cells of the proximal tubules. Colon and jejunum both showed high levels of P-glycoprotein on the apical surfaces of superficial columnar epithelial cells. Adrenal gland showed high levels of P-glycoprotein diffusely distributed on the surface of cells in both the cortex and medulla. These results suggest that the protein has a role in the normal secretion of metabolites and certain anti-cancer drugs into bile, urine, and directly into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/1987; 84(21):7735-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor