Comparison of optical and microphysical properties of pure Saharan mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006

Journal of Geophysical Research (Impact Factor: 3.17). 04/2012; 117. DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016825

ABSTRACT 1] The Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) 2006, Morocco, aimed at the characterization of optical, physical, and radiative properties of Saharan dust. AERONET Sun photometer, several lidars (Raman and high-spectral-resolution instruments), and airborne and ground-based in situ instruments provided us with a comprehensive set of data on particle-shape dependent and particle-shape independent dust properties. We compare 4 measurement days in detail, and we carry out a statistical analysis for some of the inferred data products for the complete measurement period. Particle size distributions and complex refractive indices inferred from the Sun photometer observations and measured in situ aboard a research aircraft show systematic differences. We find differences in the wavelength-dependence of single-scattering albedo, compared to light-scattering computations that use data from SOAP (spectral optical absorption photometer). AERONET data products of particle size distribution, complex refractive index, and axis ratios were used to compute particle extinction-to-backscatter (lidar) ratios and linear particle depolarization ratios. We find differences for these parameters to lidar measurements of lidar ratio and particle depolarization ratio. Differences particularly exist at 355 nm, which may be the result of differences of the wavelength-dependent complex refractive index that is inferred by the methods employed in this field campaign. We discuss various error sources that may lead to the observed differences. Citation: Müller, D., et al. (2012), Comparison of optical and microphysical properties of pure Saharan mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present for the first time vertical profiles of microphysical properties of pure mineral dust (largely unaffected by any other aerosol types) on the basis of the inversion of optical data collected with multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar. The data were taken during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) in Morocco in 2006. We also investigated two cases of mixed dust-smoke plumes on the basis of data collected during the second SAMUM field campaign that took place in the Republic of Cape Verde in 2008. Following the experience of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), the dust is modeled as a mixture of spherical particles and randomly oriented spheroids. The retrieval is performed from the full set of lidar input data (three backscatter coefficients, two extinction coefficients, and one depolarization ratio) and from a reduced set of data in which we exclude the depolarization ratio. We find differences of the microphysical properties depending on what kind of optical data combination we use. For the case of pure mineral dust, the results from these two sets of optical data are consistent and confirm the validity of the spheroid particle model for data inversion. Our results indicate that in the case of pure mineral dust we do not need depolarization information in the inversion. For the mixture of dust and biomass burning, there seem to be more limitations in the retrieval accuracy of the various data products. The evaluation of the quality of our data products is done by comparing our lidar-derived data products (vertically resolved) to results from AERONET Sun photometer observations (column-averaged) carried out at the lidar field site. Our results for dust effective radius show agreement with the AERONET observations within the retrieval uncertainties. Regarding the complex refractive index a comparison is difficult, as AERONET provides this parameter as wavelength-dependent quantity. In contrast, our inversion algorithm provides this parameter as a wavelength-independent quantity. We also show some comparison to results from airborne in situobservation. A detailed comparison to in situ results will be left for a future contribution.
    Applied Optics 05/2013; 52(14):3178-202. · 1.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: [1] Compared to typical values of 50–60 sr of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) at 532 nm of western Saharan mineral dust, low dust lidar ratios from 33.7±6.7 to 39.1±5.1 sr were derived from polarization lidar observations at Limassol, Cyprus (34°N, 33°E) during an outbreak of Arabian dust mainly from Syria in September 2011, indicated by particle linear depolarization ratios up to 28%–35%. The applied new polarization-lidar/photometer method for the extraction of the dust-related lidar-ratio information from the lidar data is outlined, and the results of the dust outbreak which lasted over several days are discussed. The results confirm an Aerosol Robotic Network photometer study on Arabian dust lidar ratios.
    Geophysical Research Letters. 09/2013; 40(17).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mineral dust aerosols exert a significant effect on both solar and terrestrial radiation. By absorbing and scattering, the solar radiation aerosols reduce the amount of energy reaching the surface. In addition, aerosols enhance the greenhouse effect by absorbing and emitting outgoing longwave radiation. Desert dust forcing exhibits large regional and temporal variability due to its short lifetime and diverse optical properties, further complicating the quantification of the direct radiative effect (DRE). The complexity of the links and feedbacks of dust on radiative transfer indicate the need for an integrated approach in order to examine these impacts. In order to examine these feedbacks, the SKIRON limited area model has been upgraded to include the RRTMG (Rapid Radiative Transfer Model - GCM) radiative transfer model that takes into consideration the aerosol radiative effects. It was run for a 6 year period. Two sets of simulations were performed, one without the effects of dust and the other including the radiative feedback. The results were first evaluated using aerosol optical depth data to examine the capabilities of the system in describing the desert dust cycle. Then the aerosol feedback on radiative transfer was quantified and the links between dust and radiation were studied. The study has revealed a strong interaction between dust particles and solar and terrestrial radiation, with several implications on the energy budget of the atmosphere. A profound effect is the increased absorption (in the shortwave and longwave) in the lower troposphere and the induced modification of the atmospheric temperature profile. These feedbacks depend strongly on the spatial distribution of dust and have more profound effects where the number of particles is greater, such as near their source.
    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 06/2013; 13(11):5489-5504. · 5.51 Impact Factor


Available from
Jun 4, 2014