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Estudio Epidemiológico de Leishmaniasis Visceral en El Limón, al norte del Estado Lara, Venezuela.

Unidad de Medicina Tropical y Parasitología "J. V. Scorza"; adscrita al Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas de la Universidad Nacional Experimental Francisco de Miranda (UNEFM); Complejo Académico Borregales, detrás del Teatro Armonía. Coro, Estado Falcón, Venezuela; Facultad de Ciencias, Investigaciones Parasitológicas "J. F. Torrealba", Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela
01/2004;

ABSTRACT El Limón es una comunidad rural ubicada en el Municipio Urdaneta, al Norte del Estado Lara, que limita al Norte con el Municipio Unión,Estado Falcón, Venezuela, una conocida área endémica de leishmaniasis visceral. Debido a su proximidad y tratándose ecológicamente de la misma zona de vida, se realizó el este caserío un estudio epidemiológico, con el objeto de determinar la seroprevalencia a Leishmania sp. humana y canina; e identificar la flebotomofauna de la zona. Se seleccionó una muestra probabilística por azar simple de 71 humanos y 18 caninos, que fueron evaluados por tres métodos serológicos (TAD, IFI, ELISA) para detectar infección por Leishmania sp., encontrándose una sero-positividad de 21% y 89% respectivamente. Se realizaron capturas quincenales en refugios naturales y con trampa de Shannon, que revelaron la presencia de Lutzomyia evansi en el área estudiada. La alta seroprevalencia humana y canina observada y la presencia de una especie incriminada en otras áreas como vectora de Leishmania, sugieren que el caserío El Limón es un foco endémico para leishmaniasis visceral.

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