Estudio Epidemiológico de Leishmaniasis Visceral en El Limón, al norte del Estado Lara, Venezuela.

Facultad de Ciencias, Investigaciones Parasitológicas "J. F. Torrealba", Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela


El Limón es una comunidad rural ubicada en el Municipio Urdaneta, al Norte del Estado Lara, que limita al Norte con el Municipio Unión,Estado Falcón, Venezuela, una conocida área endémica de leishmaniasis visceral. Debido a su proximidad y tratándose ecológicamente de la misma zona de vida, se realizó el este caserío un estudio epidemiológico, con el objeto de determinar la seroprevalencia a Leishmania sp. humana y canina; e identificar la flebotomofauna de la zona. Se seleccionó una muestra probabilística por azar simple de 71 humanos y 18 caninos, que fueron evaluados por tres métodos serológicos (TAD, IFI, ELISA) para detectar infección por Leishmania sp., encontrándose una sero-positividad de 21% y 89% respectivamente. Se realizaron capturas quincenales en refugios naturales y con trampa de Shannon, que revelaron la presencia de Lutzomyia evansi en el área estudiada. La alta seroprevalencia humana y canina observada y la presencia de una especie incriminada en otras áreas como vectora de Leishmania, sugieren que el caserío El Limón es un foco endémico para leishmaniasis visceral.

Download full-text


Available from: Néstor Añez, Oct 04, 2015
46 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The frequency of American visceral leishmaniasis affecting humans on Margarita Island, Venezuela, has increased in recent years, and infected dogs appear to constitute the principal source of infection. ELISA tests with Leishmania donovani promastigotes and rK39 antigen from L. chagasi in serum from 541 dogs were positive in 33.1% and 21.6% of the samples, respectively. A second blood sample taken from 50 animals after 8-10 months revealed an increase from 24% to 40% of ELISA positivity to both antigens, suggesting high susceptibility and transmission in the canine population. Among 42 serologically positive dogs, 33% of which showed clinical signs of disease, 79% were positive in polymerase chain reactions using primers specific for the L. donovani complex. Control measures including epidemiological hypersurveillance, the humane sacrifice of infected dogs, and rapid diagnosis and treatment of human cases have been initiated.
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 09/2000; 94(5):484-7. DOI:10.1016/S0035-9203(00)90059-2 · 1.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, Dick Ashford, Philippe Desjeux and Peter deRaadt attempt to estimate the total number of people at risk of acquiring disease caused by infection with Leishmania spp. In many areas a very small risk is distributed among large numbers of people so, although the number of people at risk may be large, the number of infections may be very small. An estimate of the global annual incidence of new cases has also been made. This refers to reported clinical disease and probably grossly underestimates the number of infections. The methods by which the estimates have been made are specified so that they, as well as the estimates themselves, may be criticized and modified with some degree of objectivity.
    Parasitology Today 04/1992; 8(3):104-5. DOI:10.1016/0169-4758(92)90249-2 · 5.51 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As part of an epidemiological study in an old focus of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) in Venezuela (Guayabita, Aragua State), a longitudinal entomological survey (January 1993-June 1994) was carried out. A total of 3,239 males and 6,043 females belonging to 11 phlebotomine sandfly species were collected. The two recognised vectors of AVL in the New World, Lutzomyia evansi and Lu. longipalpis were found to be sympatric. Lutzomyia evansi was the dominant species (86.4%), almost ten fold times more abundant than Lu. longipalpis (10.6%). The two species alternated seasonally: Lu evansi peaked at the end of the rainy season while Lu. longipalpis, almost virtually absent during such period, increased in the dry season. This species seems more greatly influenced by the temperature. Seven of 4,559 Lutzomyia evansi (0.15%) and one of 353 Lu. longipalpis (0.28%) were found positive for suprapyloric promastigotes. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with universal primers, all isolates were identified as Leishmania spp. Two cultures from Lu. evansi, IEVA/VE/93/UCNA-2 and IEVA/VE/93/UCNA-3, were established. k-DNA restriction analysis showed high homologies between these isolates and Leishmania chagasi. High hybridization signal with L. chagasi specific kDNA confirmed these results. These findings suggest that Lu. evansi may play a role as vector of visceral leishmaniasis in this area. The identity of the parasite carried by Lu. longipalpis needs to be confirmed.
    Parasite 07/1999; 6(2):113-20. DOI:10.1051/parasite/1999062113 · 1.09 Impact Factor