Mast Cells and Histamine: Do They Influence Placental Vascular Network and Development in Preeclampsia?

Department of General and Experimental Pathology, Medical University of Warsaw, Ul. Krakowskie Przedmiescie 26/28, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland.
Mediators of Inflammation (Impact Factor: 2.42). 06/2012; 2012:307189. DOI: 10.1155/2012/307189
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The physiological course of pregnancy is closely related to adequate development of the placenta. Shallow invasion of trophoblast as well as decreased development of the placental vascular network are both common features of preeclampsia. To better understand the proangiogenic features of mast cells, in this study we aim to identify the potential relationship between the distribution of mast cells within the placenta and vascular network development.
Placentas from preeclampsia-complicated pregnancies (n = 11) and from physiological pregnancies (n = 11) were acquired after cesarean section. The concentration of histamine was measured, and immunohistochemical staining for mast cell tryptase was performed. Morphometric analysis was then performed.
We noticed significant differences between the examined groups. Notably, in the preeclampsia group compared to the control group, we observed a higher mean histamine concentration, higher mast cell density (MCD), lower mean mast cell (MMCA) and lower vascular/extravascular (V/EVT) index. In physiological pregnancies, a positive correlation was observed between the histamine concentration and V/VEVT index as well as MCD and the V/VEVT index. In contrast, a negative correlation was observed between MMCA and the V/EVT index in physiological pregnancies.
Based on the data from our study, we suggest that a differential distribution of mast cells and corresponding changes in the concentration of histamine are involved in the defective placental vascularization seen in preeclamptic placentas.

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