Malonyl Coenzyme A Decarboxylase Deficiency: Early Dietary Restriction and Time Course of Cardiomyopathy
ABSTRACT Malonyl coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase (MCD) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive organic acidemia characterized by varying degrees of organ involvement and severity. MCD regulates fatty acid biosynthesis and converts malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA. Cardiomyopathy is 1 of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in this disorder. It is unknown if diet alone prevents cardiomyopathy development based in published literature. We report a 10-month-old infant girl identified by newborn screening and confirmed MCD deficiency with a novel homozygous MLYCD mutation. She had normal echocardiogram measurements before transition to high medium-chain triglycerides and low long-chain triglycerides diet. Left ventricular noncompaction development was not prevented by dietary interventions. Further restriction of long-chain triglycerides and medium-chain triglycerides supplementation in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors helped to improve echocardiogram findings. Patient remained asymptomatic, with normal development and growth. Our case emphasizes the need for ongoing cardiac disease screening in patients with MCD deficiency and the benefits and limitations of current dietary interventions.
European journal of medical genetics 04/2014; 57(7). DOI:10.1016/j.ejmg.2014.04.007 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Inhibition of malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase (MCD) shifts metabolism from fatty acid towards glucose oxidation, which has therapeutic potential for obesity and myocardial ischemic injury. However, ~ 40% of patients with MCD deficiency are diagnosed with cardiomyopathy during infancy. Aim To clarify the link between MCD deficiency and cardiac dysfunction in early life and to determine the contributing systemic and cardiac metabolic perturbations. Methods and Results MCD knockout mice (−/−) exhibited non-Mendelian genotype ratios (31% fewer MCD−/−) with deaths clustered around weaning. Immediately prior to weaning (18 days) MCD−/− mice had lower body weights, elevated body fat, hepatic steatosis and glycogen depletion compared to wild-type littermates. MCD−/− plasma was hyperketonemic, hyperlipidemic, had 60% lower lactate levels and markers of cellular damage were elevated. MCD−/− hearts exhibited hypertrophy, impaired ejection fraction and were energetically compromised (32% lower total adenine nucleotide pool). However differences between WT and MCD−/− converged with age, suggesting that, in surviving MCD−/− mice, early cardiac dysfunction resolves over time. These observations were corroborated by in silico modelling of cardiomyocyte metabolism, which indicated improvement of the MCD−/− metabolic phenotype and improved cardiac efficiency when switched from a high-fat diet (representative of suckling) to a standard post-weaning diet, independent of any developmental changes. Conclusions MCD−/− mice consistently exhibited cardiac dysfunction and severe metabolic perturbations while on a high-fat, low carbohydrate diet of maternal milk and these gradually resolved post-weaning. This suggests that dysfunction is a common feature of MCD deficiency during early development, but that severity is dependent on composition of dietary substrates.Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 07/2014; 75. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2014.07.008 · 5.22 Impact Factor
International journal of cardiology 03/2014; 173(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.03.025 · 6.18 Impact Factor