Ankyrins (ankyrin-R, -B, and -G) are adapter proteins linked with defects in metazoan physiology. Ankyrin-B (encoded by ANK2) loss-of-function mutations are directly associated with human cardiovascular phenotypes including sinus node disease, atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and sudden cardiac death. Despite the link between ankyrin-B dysfunction and monogenic disease, there are no data linking ankyrin-B regulation with common forms of human heart failure. Here, we report that ankyrin-B levels are altered in both ischemic and non-ischemic human heart failure. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that cardiac ankyrin-B levels are tightly regulated downstream of reactive oxygen species, intracellular calcium, and the calcium-dependent protease calpain, all hallmarks of human myocardial injury and heart failure. Surprisingly, β(II)-spectrin, previously thought to mediate ankyrin-dependent modulation in the nervous system and heart, is not coordinately regulated with ankyrin-B or its downstream partners. Finally, our data implicate ankyrin-B expression as required for vertebrate myocardial protection as hearts deficient in ankyrin-B show increased cardiac damage and impaired function relative to wild-type mouse hearts following ischemia reperfusion. In summary, our findings provide the data of ankyrin-B regulation in human heart failure, provide insight into candidate pathways for ankyrin-B regulation in acquired human cardiovascular disease, and surprisingly, implicate ankyrin-B as a molecular component for cardioprotection following ischemia.
"While there is an obvious reserve of Na channels in the heart, optimal function will depend on their location and anchoring by ankyrin-G. In the acute phase of remodeling of ischemia, it is likely ankyrin-G levels are acutely reduced by the calcium-activated, calcium-dependent calpain, similar to ankyrin-B . Thus, we suggest that following 48 hours, ankyrin-G levels recover and stabilize in an effort to actively regulate Nav1.5 channel protein recruitment to sarcolemmal membrane. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac Na channel remodeling provides a critical substrate for generation of reentrant arrhythmias in border zones of the infarcted canine heart. Recent studies show that Nav1.5 assembly and function are linked to ankyrin-G, gap, and mechanical junction proteins. In this study our objective is to expound the status of the cardiac Na channel, its interacting protein ankyrinG and the mechanical and gap junction proteins at two different times post infarction when arrhythmias are known to occur; that is, 48 hr and 5 day post coronary occlusion. Previous studies have shown the origins of arrhythmic events come from the subendocardial Purkinje and epicardial border zone. Our Purkinje cell (Pcell) voltage clamp study shows that INa and its kinetic parameters do not differ between Pcells from the subendocardium of the 48hr infarcted heart (IZPCs) and control non-infarcted Pcells (NZPCs). Immunostaining studies revealed that disturbances of Nav1.5 protein location with ankyrin-G are modest in 48 hr IZPCs. Therefore, Na current remodeling does not contribute to the abnormal conduction in the subendocardial border zone 48 hr post myocardial infarction as previously defined. In addition, immunohistochemical data show that Cx40/Cx43 co-localize at the intercalated disc (IDs) of control NZPCs but separate in IZPCs. At the same time, Purkinje cell desmoplakin and desmoglein2 immunostaining become diffuse while plakophilin2 and plakoglobin increase in abundance at IDs. In the epicardial border zone 5 days post myocardial infarction, immunoblot and immunocytochemical analyses showed that ankyrin-G protein expression is increased and re-localized to submembrane cell regions at a time when Nav1.5 function is decreased. Thus, Nav1.5 and ankyrin-G remodeling occur later after myocardial infarction compared to that of gap and mechanical junctional proteins. Gap and mechanical junctional proteins remodel in IZPCs early, perhaps to help maintain Nav1.5 subcellular location position and preserve its function soon after myocardial infarction.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e78087. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078087 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kinase/phosphatase balance governs cardiac excitability in health and disease. While detailed mechanisms for cardiac kinase regulation are established, far less is known regarding cardiac protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulation. This is largely due to the complexity of the PP2A holoenzyme structure (combinatorial assembly of three subunit enzyme from >seventeen subunit genes) and the inability to segregate global PP2A function from the activities of multiple local holoenzyme populations. Here, we report that PP2A catalytic, regulatory, and scaffolding subunits are tightly regulated at transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels to tune myocyte function at baseline and in disease. We show that past global read-outs of cellular PP2A activity more appropriately represent the collective activity of numerous individual PP2A holoenzymes, each displaying a specific subcellular localization (dictated by select PP2A regulatory subunits), as well as local specific post-translational catalytic subunit methylation and phosphorylation events that regulate local and rapid holoenzyme assembly/disassembly (via LCMT-1/PME-1). We report that PP2A subunits are selectively regulated between human and animal models, across cardiac chambers, and even within specific cardiac-cell types. Moreover, this regulation can be rapidly tuned in response to cellular activation. Finally, we report that global PP2A is altered in human and experimental models of heart disease, yet each pathology displays its own distinct molecular signature though specific PP2A subunit modulatory events. These new data provide an initial view into the signaling pathways that govern PP2A function in heart, but also establish the first step in defining specific PP2A regulatory targets in health and disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ankyrin-B is a multifunctional adapter protein responsible for localization and stabilization of select ion channels, transporters, and signaling molecules in excitable cells including cardiomyocytes. Ankyrin-B dysfunction has been linked with highly penetrant sinoatrial node (SAN) dysfunction and increased susceptibility to atrial fibrillation. While previous studies have identified a role for abnormal ion homeostasis in ventricular arrhythmias, the molecular mechanisms responsible for atrial arrhythmias and SAN dysfunction in human patients with ankyrin-B syndrome are unclear. Here, we develop a computational model of ankyrin-B dysfunction in atrial and SAN cells and tissue to determine the mechanism for increased susceptibility to atrial fibrillation and SAN dysfunction in human patients with ankyrin-B syndrome. Our simulations predict that defective membrane targeting of the voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channel Ca(v)1.3 leads to action potential shortening that reduces the critical atrial tissue mass needed to sustain reentrant activation. In parallel, increased fibrosis results in conduction slowing that further increases the susceptibility to sustained reentry in the setting of ankyrin-B dysfunction. In SAN cells, loss of Ca(v)1.3 slows spontaneous pacemaking activity, while defects in Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase increase variability in SAN cell firing. Finally, simulations of the intact SAN reveal a shift in primary pacemaker site, SAN exit block, and even SAN failure in ankyrin-B-deficient tissue. These studies identify the mechanism for increased susceptibility to atrial fibrillation and SAN dysfunction in human disease. Importantly, ankyrin-B dysfunction involves changes at both the cell and tissue level that favor the common manifestation of atrial arrhythmias and SAN dysfunction.
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