A novel mechanism involving four-and-a-half LIM domain protein-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 regulates titin phosphorylation and mechanics.
ABSTRACT Understanding mechanisms underlying titin regulation in cardiac muscle function is of critical importance given recent compelling evidence that highlight titin mutations as major determinants of human cardiomyopathy. We previously identified a cardiac biomechanical stress-regulated complex at the cardiac-specific N2B region of titin that includes four-and-a-half LIM domain protein-1 (Fhl1) and components of the mitogen-activated protein signaling cascade, which impacted muscle compliance in Fhl1 knock-out cardiac muscle. However, direct regulation of these molecular components in mediating titin N2B function remained unresolved. Here we identify Fhl1 as a novel negative regulator of titin N2B levels and phosphorylation-mediated mechanics. We specifically identify titin N2B as a novel substrate of extracellular signal regulated-kinase-2 (Erk2) and demonstrate that Fhl1 directly interferes with Erk2-mediated titin-N2B phosphorylation. We highlight the critical region in titin-N2B that interacts with Fhl1 and residues that are dependent on Erk2-mediated phosphorylation in situ. We also propose a potential mechanism for a known titin-N2B cardiomyopathy-causing mutation that involves this regulatory complex. These studies shed light on a novel mechanism regulating titin-N2B mechano-signaling as well as suggest that dysfunction of these pathways could be important in cardiac disease states affecting muscle compliance.
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ABSTRACT: The LIM domain is a zinc finger structure that is present in several types of proteins, including homeodomain transcription factors, kinases and proteins that consist of several LIM domains. Proteins containing LIM domains have been discovered to play important roles in a variety of fundamental biological processes including cytoskeleton organization, cell lineage specification and organ development, but also for pathological functions such as oncogenesis, leading to human disease. The LIM domain has been demonstrated to be a protein-protein interaction motif that is critically involved in these processes. The recent isolation and analysis of more LIM domain-containing proteins from several species have confirmed and broadened our knowledge about LIM protein function. Furthermore, the identification and characterization of factors that interact with LIM domains illuminates mechanisms of combinatorial developmental regulation.Mechanisms of Development 04/2000; 91(1-2):5-17. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: LIM domain containing proteins play critical roles in animal development and cellular differentiation. Here, we describe the cloning and expression patterns of three members of the four and a half LIM domain-only protein family, FHL1, 2, and 3, from mouse. A comparison of embryonic expression patterns of these three highly-related genes indicates that they are expressed in an overlapping pattern in the developing cardiovascular system, and skeletal muscle. In adult tissues, the three genes are expressed in a predominant and overlapping manner in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Of the three genes, FHL2 appears to have the most restricted expression pattern during development, in heart, blood vessels, and skeletal muscle. Expression in heart is highest in cardiac septa and in the region adjacent to the atrio-ventricular ring, suggesting a potential role in septation or conduction system development. In the heart, FHL1expression was observed strongly in developing outflow tract, and to a lesser extent in myocardium. FHL3 displays low and ubiquitous expression during mouse development. Cardiac ventricular expression of FHL1, but not FHL2 or FHL3, was upregulated in two mouse models of cardiac hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy. Taken together, these data indicate the potential importance of this FHL family in the development and maintenance of the cardiovascular system and striated muscle, and suggest that FHL1 may play a role in the development of heart disease.Mechanisms of Development 08/2000; 95(1-2):259-65. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of protein kinase A (PKA) on passive force in skinned cardiac tissues that express different isoforms of titin, i.e., stiff (N2B) and more compliant (N2BA) titins, at different levels. We used rat ventricular (RV), bovine left ventricular (BLV), and bovine left atrial (BLA) muscles (passive force: RV > BLV > BLA, with the ratio of N2B to N2BA titin, approximately 90:10, approximately 40:60, and approximately 10:90%, respectively) and found that N2B and N2BA isoforms can both be phosphorylated by PKA. Under the relaxed condition, sarcomere length was increased and then held constant for 30 min and the peak passive force, stress-relaxation, and steady-state passive force were determined. Following PKA treatment, passive force was significantly decreased in all muscle types with the effect greatest in RV, lowest in BLA, and intermediate in BLV. Fitting the stress-relaxation data to the sum of three exponential decay functions revealed that PKA blunts the magnitude of stress-relaxation and accelerates its time constants. To investigate whether or not PKA-induced decreases in passive force result from possible alteration of titin-thin filament interaction (e.g., via troponin I phosphorylation), we conducted the same experiments using RV preparations that had been treated with gelsolin to extract thin filaments. PKA decreased passive force in gelsolin-treated RV preparations with a magnitude similar to that observed in control preparations. PKA was also found to decrease restoring force in skinned ventricular myocytes of the rat that had been shortened to below the slack length. Finally, we investigated the effect of the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoprenaline on diastolic force in intact rat ventricular trabeculae. We found that isoprenaline phosphorylated titin and that it reduced diastolic force to a degree similar to that found in skinned RV preparations. Taken together, these results suggest that during beta-adrenergic stimulation, PKA increases ventricular compliance in a titin isoform-dependent manner.The Journal of General Physiology 04/2005; 125(3):257-71. · 4.73 Impact Factor