A Novel Mechanism Involving Four-and-a-half LIM Domain Protein-1 and Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase-2 Regulates Titin Phosphorylation and Mechanics
ABSTRACT Understanding mechanisms underlying titin regulation in cardiac muscle function is of critical importance given recent compelling evidence that highlight titin mutations as major determinants of human cardiomyopathy. We previously identified a cardiac biomechanical stress-regulated complex at the cardiac-specific N2B region of titin that includes four-and-a-half LIM domain protein-1 (Fhl1) and components of the mitogen-activated protein signaling cascade, which impacted muscle compliance in Fhl1 knock-out cardiac muscle. However, direct regulation of these molecular components in mediating titin N2B function remained unresolved. Here we identify Fhl1 as a novel negative regulator of titin N2B levels and phosphorylation-mediated mechanics. We specifically identify titin N2B as a novel substrate of extracellular signal regulated-kinase-2 (Erk2) and demonstrate that Fhl1 directly interferes with Erk2-mediated titin-N2B phosphorylation. We highlight the critical region in titin-N2B that interacts with Fhl1 and residues that are dependent on Erk2-mediated phosphorylation in situ. We also propose a potential mechanism for a known titin-N2B cardiomyopathy-causing mutation that involves this regulatory complex. These studies shed light on a novel mechanism regulating titin-N2B mechano-signaling as well as suggest that dysfunction of these pathways could be important in cardiac disease states affecting muscle compliance.
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ABSTRACT: The 364 exon TTN gene encodes titin (TTN), the largest known protein, which plays key structural, developmental, mechanical and regulatory roles in cardiac and skeletal muscles. Prior to next generation sequencing (NGS), routine analysis of the whole TTN gene was impossible due to its giant size and complexity. Thus, only a few TTN mutations had been reported and the general incidence and spectrum of titinopathies was significantly underestimated. In the last months, due to widespread use of NGS, TTN is emerging as a major gene in human inherited disease. So far, 127 TTN disease causing mutations have been reported in patients with at least 10 different conditions, including isolated cardiomyopathies, purely skeletal muscle phenotypes or infantile diseases affecting both types of striated muscles. However, identification of TTN variants in virtually every individual from control populations, as well as the multiplicity of TTN isoforms and reference sequences used, stress the difficulties in assessing the relevance, inheritance and correlation with the phenotype of TTN sequence changes. In this review we provide the first comprehensive update of the TTN mutations reported and discuss their distribution, molecular mechanisms, associated phenotypes, transmission pattern and phenotype-genotype correlations, alongside with their implications for basic research and for human health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Human Mutation 09/2014; 35(9). DOI:10.1002/humu.22611 · 5.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Titin-based passive stiffness is post-translationally regulated by several kinases that phosphorylate specific spring elements located within titin's elastic I-band region. Whether titin is phosphorylated by calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), an important regulator of cardiac function and disease, has not been addressed. The aim of this work was to determine whether CaMKIIδ, the predominant CaMKII isoform in the heart, phosphorylates titin, and to use phosphorylation assays and mass spectrometry to study which of titin's spring elements might be targeted by CaMKIIδ. It was found that CaMKIIδ phosphorylates titin in mouse LV skinned fibers, that the CaMKIIδ sites can be dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), and that under baseline conditions, in both intact isolated hearts and skinned myocardium, about half of the CaMKIIδ sites are phosphorylated. Mass spectrometry revealed that both the N2B and PEVK segments are targeted by CaMKIIδ at several conserved serine residues. Whether phosphorylation of titin by CaMKIIδ occurs in vivo, was tested in several conditions using back phosphorylation assays and phospho-specific antibodies to CaMKIIδ sites. Reperfusion following global ischemia increased the phosphorylation level of CaMKIIδ sites on titin and this effect was abolished by the CaMKII inhibitor KN-93. No changes in the phosphorylation level of the PEVK element were found suggesting that the increased phosphorylation level of titin in IR might be due to phosphorylation of the N2B element. The findings of these studies show for the first time that titin can be phosphoryalated by CaMKIIδ, both in vitro and in vivo, and that titin's molecular spring region that determines diastolic stiffness is a target of CaMKIIδ.Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 12/2012; 54. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2012.11.012 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rationale: Myocardial diastolic stiffness and cardiomyocyte passive force (F(passive)) depend in part on titin isoform composition and phosphorylation. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMKII) phosphorylates ion channels, Ca2(2+)-handling proteins and chromatin-modifying enzymes in the heart, but has not been known to target titin. Objective: To elucidate whether CaMKII phosphorylates titin and modulates F(passive) in normal and failing myocardium. Methods and Results: Titin phosphorylation was assessed in CaMKIIδ/γ double-knockout (DKO) mouse, transgenic CaMKIIδC-overexpressing (TG) mouse, and human hearts, by Pro-Q-Diamond/Sypro-Ruby staining, autoradiography, and immunoblotting using phosphoserine-specific titin-antibodies. CaMKII-dependent site-specific titin phosphorylation was quantified in vivo by mass spectrometry using SILAC mouse heart mixed with wildtype (WT) or DKO heart. Fpassive of single permeabilized cardiomyocytes was recorded before and after CaMKII-administration. All-titin phosphorylation was reduced by >50% in DKO but increased by up to ~100% in TG versus WT hearts. Conserved CaMKII-dependent phosphosites were identified within titin's PEVK-domain by quantitative mass spectrometry and confirmed in recombinant human PEVK-fragments. CaMKII also phosphorylated the cardiac titin N2B-unique sequence (N2Bus). Phosphorylation at specific PEVK/N2Bus sites was decreased in DKO and amplified in TG versus WT hearts. Fpassive was elevated in DKO and reduced in TG compared to WT cardiomyocytes. CaMKII-administration lowered Fpassive of WT and DKO cardiomyocytes, an effect blunted by titin antibody pretreatment. Human end-stage failing hearts revealed higher CaMKII expression/activity and phosphorylation at PEVK/N2Bus sites than non-failing donor hearts. Conclusions: CaMKII phosphorylates the titin springs at conserved serines/threonines, thereby lowering F(passive). Deranged CaMKII-dependent titin phosphorylation occurs in heart failure and contributes to altered diastolic stress.Circulation Research 01/2013; 112(4). DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.300105 · 11.09 Impact Factor