Management of flail chest without mechanical ventilation.
ABSTRACT The pathophysiology of flail chest is usually described only on the basis of paradoxical respiration, ignoring underlying pulmonary contusion. Two groups of comparable patients were treated either with early tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation (Group 1), or with fluid restriction, diuretics, methylpredinisolone, albumin, vigorous pulmonary toilet, and intercostal nerve blocks, ignoring the paradox and treating only the underlying lung (Group 2). When tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation were not used the mortality rate went from 21% to O(p = 0.01), the complication rate from 100% to 20% (p = 0.005), and the average hospitalization from 31.3 to 9.3 days (p = 0.005). We conclude that most patients with flail chest do not need internal pneumatic stabilization if the underlying lung is treated appropriately and that tracheostomy and prolonged mechanical ventilation with a volume respirator, as practiced in most respiratory care centers, is usually a triumph of technique over judgment.
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ABSTRACT: Lung injury in trauma patients can occur because of direct injury to lung or due to secondary effects of injury elsewhere for example fat embolism from a long bone fracture, or due to response to a systemic insult such as; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to sepsis or transfusion related lung injury. There are certain special situations like head injury where the primary culprit is not the lung, but the brain and the ventilator strategy is aimed at preserving the brain tissue and the respiratory system takes a second place. The present article aims to delineate the strategies addressing practical problems and challenges faced by intensivists dealing with trauma patients with or without healthy lungs. The lung protective strategies along with newer trends in ventilation are discussed. Ventilatory management for specific organ system trauma are highlighted and their physiological base is presented.Journal of Emergencies Trauma and Shock 03/2014; 7(1):25-31. DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.125635
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ABSTRACT: Gender alone offers no survival advantage in humans following trauma. However, male gender does predict increased morbidity, specifically ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Previous work has shown that despite lower incidence of VAP, females with VAP have increased mortality. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the impact of VAP and gender on outcome and to determine which characteristics of severe VAP predict mortality in trauma patients.Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 07/2014; 77(1):161-165. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000251 · 1.97 Impact Factor
Article: Noninvasive ventilation in trauma.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Trauma patients are a diverse population with heterogeneous needs for ventilatory support. This requirement depends mainly on the severity of their ventilatory dysfunction, degree of deterioration in gaseous exchange, any associated injuries, and the individual feasibility of potentially using a noninvasive ventilation approach. Noninvasive ventilation may reduce the need to intubate patients with trauma-related hypoxemia. It is well-known that these patients are at increased risk to develop hypoxemic respiratory failure which may or may not be associated with hypercapnia. Hypoxemia in these patients is due to ventilation perfusion mismatching and right to left shunt because of lung contusion, atelectasis, an inability to clear secretions as well as pneumothorax and/or hemothorax, all of which are common in trauma patients. Noninvasive ventilation has been tried in these patients in order to avoid the complications related to endotracheal intubation, mainly ventilator-associated pneumonia. The potential usefulness of noninvasive ventilation in the ventilatory management of trauma patients, though reported in various studies, has not been sufficiently investigated on a large scale. According to the British Thoracic Society guidelines, the indications and efficacy of noninvasive ventilation treatment in respiratory distress induced by trauma have thus far been inconsistent and merely received a low grade recommendation. In this review paper, we analyse and compare the results of various studies in which noninvasive ventilation was applied and discuss the role and efficacy of this ventilator modality in trauma.