Effect of treatment with pravastatin or ezetimibe on endothelial function in patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND/AIM: Statin treatment improves endothelial function. It is matter of debate, however, if this effect of statins is due to their action on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or to other non-lipidic (pleiotropic) effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of pravastatin on endothelial function is mediated by pleiotropic effects. We therefore compared the effect of pravastatin and ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor, at doses yielding similar reductions in LDL-C and examined the effect of the two treatments on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in hypercholesterolemic subjects. METHODS: A total of 33 moderately hypercholesterolemic patients were randomized into three treatment groups to receive ezetimibe 10 mg/day (n = 10), pravastatin 10 mg/day (n = 13) or no treatment (control, n = 10) for 6 weeks. To assess endothelial function, we determined FMD of the brachial artery non-invasively by high-resolution ultrasound before and after treatment. RESULTS: Ezetimibe and pravastatin treatment reduced LDL-C (mean ± standard error) to a similar extent (-20.6 ± 4.1 vs. -24.1 ± 4.0 %, respectively; P = 0.4771), while no decrease was observed in the control group. FMD increased significantly after treatment with ezetimibe (from 11.4 ± 5.7 to 16.8 ± 3.6 %; P = 0.022) and with pravastatin (from 13.7 ± 4.9 to 17.5 ± 4.4 %; P = 0.0466), but not in the control group. There were no differences in the endothelial function changes between the two treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, two treatments that lower cholesterol via different mechanisms improved endothelial function to a similar extent, suggesting that the observed effect can be explained by the reduction of cholesterol levels.
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ABSTRACT: To demonstrate that p53 modulates endothelial function and the stress response to a high-fat western diet (WD). Three-month old p53+/+ wild type (WT) and p53+/- male mice were fed a regular or WD for 3 months. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol were significantly elevated (p<0.05) in WD-fed WT (from 2.1±0.2 mmol/L to 3.1±0.2, and from 0.64±0.09 mmol/L to 1.25±0.11, respectively) but not in p53+/- mice. The lack of cholesterol accumulation in WD-fed p53+/- mice was ass-ociated with high bile acid plasma concentrations (p53+/- = 4.7±0.9 vs. WT = 3.3±0.2 μmol/L, p<0.05) concomitant with an increased hepatic 7-alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression. While the WD did not affect aortic endothelial relaxant function in p53+/- mice (WD = 83±5 and RD = 82±4% relaxation), it increased the maximal response to acetylcholine in WT mice (WD = 87±2 vs. RD = 62±5% relaxation, p<0.05) to levels of p53+/-. In WT mice, the rise in TC associated with higher (p<0.05) plasma levels of pro-inflammatory keratinocyte-derived chemokine, and an over-activation (p<0.05) of the relaxant non-nitric oxide/non-prostacyclin endothelial pathway. It is likely that in WT mice, activations of these pathways are adaptive and contributed to maintain endothelial function, while the WD neither promoted inflammation nor affected endothelial function in p53+/- mice. Our data demonstrate that low endogenous p53 expression prevents the rise in circulating levels of cholesterol when fed a WD. Consequently, the endothelial stress of hypercholesterolemia is absent in young p53+/- mice as evidenced by the absence of endothelial adaptive pathway over-activation to minimize stress-related damage.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e92394. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated the cardiometabolic and redox balance profiles in patients with Metabolic Syndrome compared to apparently healthy individuals, and the participation of the myeloperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide axis in systemic lipid peroxidation. Twenty-four patients with Metabolic Syndrome and eighteen controls underwent a full clinical assessment. Venous blood samples were collected for general biochemical dosages, as well as for the oxidative stress analyses (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and arginase activities; and lipid peroxidation, myeloperoxidase activity, nitrite, and hydrogen peroxide concentrations in plasma). Arterial stiffness was assessed by radial artery applanation tonometry. Plasma lipid peroxidation, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity, myeloperoxidase activity, and hydrogen peroxide concentrations were shown to be increased in Metabolic Syndrome patients, without significant differences for the other enzymes, plasma nitrite concentrations, and arterial stiffness. Linear regression analysis revealed a positive and significant correlation between lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase and also between this enzyme and hydrogen peroxide. In contrast, such correlation was not observed between lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide. In summary, Metabolic Syndrome patients exhibited evident systemic redox imbalance compared to controls, with the possible participation of the myeloperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide axis as a contributor in lipid peroxidation.Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 01/2014; 2014:898501.
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ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammatory mechanisms play a central role in the development, progression and outcome of atherosclerosis. Recent evidence suggests that statins improve anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and endothelial functions, along with their lipid-decreasing effects. We examined the effect of statins on endothelial function using biochemical markers of endothelial dysfunction and brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD).Journal of Clinical Medicine Research 10/2014; 6(5):354-61.