Bacterial sensing, cell signaling, and modulation of the immune response during sepsis.
ABSTRACT Since the definition of systemic inflammatory response syndrome/sepsis was originally proposed, a large amount of new information has been generated showing a much more complex scenario of inflammatory and counterinflammatory responses during sepsis. Moreover, some fundamental mechanisms of sensing and destroying invading microorganisms have been uncovered, which include the discovery of TLR4 as the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) gene, implications of innate immune cells as drivers of the adaptive response to infection, and the modulation of multiple accessory molecules that stimulate or inhibit monocyte/macrophage and lymphocyte interactions. The complexity of the infection/injury-induced immune response could be better appreciated with the application of genomics and proteomics studies, and LPS was a useful tool in many of these studies. In this review, we discuss aspects of bacterial recognition and induced cellular activation during sepsis. Because of the relevance of endotoxin (LPS) research in the field, we focus on LPS and host interactions as a clue to understand microorganisms sensing and cell signaling, then we discuss how this response is modulated in septic patients.
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ABSTRACT: Sepsis represents a substantial health care burden, and there is limited epidemiologic information about the demography of sepsis or about the temporal changes in its incidence and outcome. We investigated the epidemiology of sepsis in the United States, with specific examination of race and sex, causative organisms, the disposition of patients, and the incidence and outcome. We analyzed the occurrence of sepsis from 1979 through 2000 using a nationally representative sample of all nonfederal acute care hospitals in the United States. Data on new cases were obtained from hospital discharge records coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Review of discharge data on approximately 750 million hospitalizations in the United States over the 22-year period identified 10,319,418 cases of sepsis. Sepsis was more common among men than among women (mean annual relative risk, 1.28 [95 percent confidence interval, 1.24 to 1.32]) and among nonwhite persons than among white persons (mean annual relative risk, 1.90 [95 percent confidence interval, 1.81 to 2.00]). Between 1979 and 2000, there was an annualized increase in the incidence of sepsis of 8.7 percent, from about 164,000 cases (82.7 per 100,000 population) to nearly 660,000 cases (240.4 per 100,000 population). The rate of sepsis due to fungal organisms increased by 207 percent, with gram-positive bacteria becoming the predominant pathogens after 1987. The total in-hospital mortality rate fell from 27.8 percent during the period from 1979 through 1984 to 17.9 percent during the period from 1995 through 2000, yet the total number of deaths continued to increase. Mortality was highest among black men. Organ failure contributed cumulatively to mortality, with temporal improvements in survival among patients with fewer than three failing organs. The average length of the hospital stay decreased, and the rate of discharge to nonacute care medical facilities increased. The incidence of sepsis and the number of sepsis-related deaths are increasing, although the overall mortality rate among patients with sepsis is declining. There are also disparities among races and between men and women in the incidence of sepsis. Gram-positive bacteria and fungal organisms are increasingly common causes of sepsis.New England Journal of Medicine 05/2003; 348(16):1546-54. · 53.30 Impact Factor
Article: Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: Analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the incidence, cost, and outcome of severe sepsis in the United States. Design: Observational cohort study. Setting: All nonfederal hospitals (n = 847) in seven U.S. states. Patients: All patients (n = 192,980) meeting criteria for severe sepsis based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results : We linked all 1995 state hospital discharge records (n = 6,621,559) from seven large states with population and hospital data from the U.S. Census, the Centers for Disease Control, the Health Care Financing Administration, and the American Hospital Association. We defined severe sepsis as documented infection and acute organ dysfunction using criteria based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. We validated these criteria against prospective clinical and physiologic criteria in a subset of five hospitals. We generated national age- and gender-adjusted estimates of incidence, cost, and outcome. We identified 192,980 cases, yielding national estimates of 751,000 cases (3.0 cases per 1,000 population and 2.26 cases per 100 hospital discharges), of whom 383,000 (51.1%) received intensive care and an additional 130,000 (17.3%) were ventilated in an intermediate care unit or cared for in a coronary care unit. Incidence increased >100-fold with age (0.2/1,000 in children to 26.2/1,000 in those >85 yrs old). Mortality was 28.6%, or 215,000 deaths nationally, and also increased with age, from 10% in children to 38.4% in those >85 yrs old. Women had lower age-specific incidence and mortality, but the difference in mortality was explained by differences in underlying disease and the site of infection. The average costs per case were $22,100, with annual total costs of $16.7 billion nationally. Costs were higher in infants, nonsurvivors, intensive care unit patients, surgical patients, and patients with more organ failure. The incidence was projected to increase by 1.5% per annum. Conclusions: Severe sepsis is a common, expensive, and frequently fatal condition, with as many deaths annually as those from acute myocardial infarction. It is especially common in the elderly and is likely to increase substantially as the U.S. population ages.Critical Care Medicine 06/2001; 29(7):1303-1310. · 6.33 Impact Factor
Infection 27(1):1-11. · 2.66 Impact Factor