Extended coverage of HPV vaccination in middle-aged adults to prevent oropharyngeal cancers

Sant Parmanand Hospital
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (Impact Factor: 2.37). 07/2012; 8(7):959. DOI: 10.4161/hv.20043
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The rate of anal cancer is increasing among both women and men, particularly men who have sex with men. Caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), primarily HPV type 16 or 18, anal cancer is preceded by high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (grade 2 or 3). We studied the safety and efficacy of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV) against anal intraepithelial neoplasia associated with HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18 infection in men who have sex with men. In a substudy of a larger double-blind study, we randomly assigned 602 healthy men who have sex with men, 16 to 26 years of age, to receive either qHPV or placebo. The primary efficacy objective was prevention of anal intraepithelial neoplasia or anal cancer related to infection with HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18. Efficacy analyses were performed in intention-to-treat and per-protocol efficacy populations. The rates of adverse events were documented. Efficacy of the qHPV vaccine against anal intraepithelial neoplasia associated with HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18 was 50.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25.7 to 67.2) in the intention-to-treat population and 77.5% (95% CI, 39.6 to 93.3) in the per-protocol efficacy population; the corresponding efficacies against anal intraepithelial neoplasia associated with HPV of any type were 25.7% (95% CI, -1.1 to 45.6) and 54.9% (95% CI, 8.4 to 79.1), respectively. Rates of anal intraepithelial neoplasia per 100 person-years were 17.5 in the placebo group and 13.0 in the vaccine group in the intention-to-treat population and 8.9 in the placebo group and 4.0 in the vaccine group in the per-protocol efficacy population. The rate of grade 2 or 3 anal intraepithelial neoplasia related to infection with HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18 was reduced by 54.2% (95% CI, 18.0 to 75.3) in the intention-to-treat population and by 74.9% (95% CI, 8.8 to 95.4) in the per-protocol efficacy population. The corresponding risks of persistent anal infection with HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18 were reduced by 59.4% (95% CI, 43.0 to 71.4) and 94.9% (95% CI, 80.4 to 99.4), respectively. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. Use of the qHPV vaccine reduced the rates of anal intraepithelial neoplasia, including of grade 2 or 3, among men who have sex with men. The vaccine had a favorable safety profile and may help to reduce the risk of anal cancer. (Funded by Merck and the National Institutes of Health; number, NCT00090285.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 10/2011; 365(17):1576-85. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1010971 · 55.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Worldwide, prophylactic vaccines against two major human cancers are now commercially available: hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines (first licensed in 1982) against primary hepatocellular carcinoma and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines (first licensed 2006) against cervical cancer. Initial implementation strategies for HBV vaccination were not successful in preventing disease in the community: it took 15 years for significant global reduction in the burden of this disease. We compare and contrast HBV vaccine experiences to challenges for successful global HPV vaccination strategies, and make recommendations accordingly. Lessons from HBV immunisation for successful outcomes with HPV immunisation showed that several factors need to be met: (i) the engagement of key stakeholders in all aspects of planning and delivery of HPV vaccine strategies; (ii) understanding the specific characteristics of targeted population groups; (iii) global cooperation and support with WHO recommendations; (iv) Government supported mass immunization programs and cooperation between public and private entities; (v) affordable HPV vaccines for some regions; (vi) culturally appropriate and diverse public education programs in targeted health promotion strategies; (vii) pro-active health providers and parents in encouraging adolescents to undertake HPV vaccination; and (vii) eventual immunisation of infants. The key to success will be affordable, readily deliverable HPV vaccines to young girls as universal campaigns.
    Sexual Health 09/2010; 7(3):383-90. DOI:10.1071/SH09134 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been reported recently that oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV infection and HPV types in the oral cavity and cervix of female sex workers in Japan. Oral and cervical swabs were taken from 196 female sex workers who visited a clinic for regular medical checkups in 2007, and genomic DNA was extracted from those specimens. The HPV L1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using original and modified GP5(+)/6(+) primers, and genotyping was performed using the Kurabo GeneSquare Microarray or by sequencing cloned PCR products. HPV DNA was detected in the oral cavity of 12 (6.1%) women, with HPV-56 being the most common type (7/12). Likewise, HPV DNA was detected in the cervix of 103 (52.6%) women, with HPV-52 (30/103, 29.1%), followed by HPV-16 (24.3%) and HPV-56 (18.4%), being the most common. Of the 12 women with oral HPV infection, only two were infected with the concordant HPV genotype in the cervix. These findings suggest that oral HPV infection occurs independently of cervical HPV infection in this population, and that oral HPV infection may play a role in HPV transmission in Japan.
    01/2011; 64(1):34-9.


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