Transcriptome analysis of head kidney in grass carp and discovery of immune-related genes

BMC Veterinary Research (Impact Factor: 1.74). 07/2012; 8(1):108. DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-108
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most economically important freshwater fish, but its production is often affected by diseases that cause serious economic losses. To date, no good breeding varieties have been obtained using the oriented cultivation technique. The ability to identify disease resistance genes in grass carp is important to cultivate disease-resistant varieties of grass carp. RESULTS: In this study, we constructed a non-normalized cDNA library of head kidney in grass carp, and, after clustering and assembly, we obtained 3,027 high-quality unigenes. Solexa sequencing was used to generate sequence tags from the transcriptomes of the head kidney in grass carp before and after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection. After processing, we obtained 22,144 tags that were differentially expressed by more than 2-fold between the uninfected and infected groups. 679 of the differentially expressed tags (3.1%) mapped to 483 of the unigenes (16.0%). The up-regulated and down-regulated unigenes were annotated using gene ontology terms; 16 were annotated as immune-related and 42 were of unknown function having no matches to any of the sequences in the databases that were used in the similarity searches. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed four unknown unigenes that showed significant responses to the viral infection. Based on domain structure predictions, one of these sequences was found to encode a protein that contained two transmembrane domains and, therefore, may be a transmembrane protein. Here, we proposed that this novel unigene may encode a virus receptor or a protein that mediates the immune signalling pathway at the cell surface. CONCLUSION: This study enriches the molecular basis data of grass carp and further confirms that, based on fish tissue-specific EST databases, transcriptome analysis is an effective route to discover novel functional genes.

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    ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8), a prototypical intracellular member of TLR family, is generally linked closely to antiviral innate immune through recognizing viral nucleic acid. In this study, 5'-flanking region of Ctenopharyngodon idella TLR8 (CiTLR8), 671 bp in length, was amplified and eight SNPs containing one SNP in the intron, three SNPs in the coding region (CDS) and four SNPs in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) were identified and characterized. Of which 4062 A/T was significantly associated with the susceptibility/resistance to GCRV both in genotype and allele (P < 0.05), while 4168 C/T was extremely significantly associated with that (P < 0.01) according to the case (susceptibility)-control (resistance) analysis. Following the verification experiment, further analyses of mRNA expression, linkage disequilibrium (LD), haplotype and microRNA (miRNA) target site indicated that 4062 A/T and 4168 C/T in 3'-UTR might affect the miRNA regulation, while the exertion of antiviral effects of 4062 A/T might rely on its interaction with other SNPs. Additionally, the high-density of SNPs in 3'-UTR might reflect the specific biological functions of 3'-UTR. And also, the mutation of 747 A/G in intron changing the potential transcriptional factor-binding sites (TFBS) nearby might affect the expression of CiTLR8 transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally. Moreover, as predicted, the A/G transition of the only non-synonymous SNP (3846 A/G) in CDS causing threonine/alanine variation, could shorten the length of the α-helix and ultimately affect the integrity of the Toll-IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The functional mechanism of 3846 A/G might also involve a threonine phosphorylation signaling. This study may broaden the knowledge of TLR polymorphisms, lay the foundation for further functional research of CiTLR8 and provide potential markers as well as theoretical basis for resistance molecular breeding of grass carp against GCRV. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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    ABSTRACT: Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in Northern China. Given to the rapid development of aquaculture industry, the C. semilaevis was subjected to disease-causing bacteria Vibrio anguillarum. It therefore is indispensable and urgent to understand the mechanism of C. semilaevis host defense against V. anguillarum infection. In the present study, the extensively analysis at the transcriptome level for V. Anguillarum disease in tongue sole was carried out. In total, 94,716 high quality contigs were generated from 75,884,572 clean reads in three libraries (HOSG, NOSG, and CG). 22,746 unigenes were identified when compared with SwissProt, an NR protein database and NT nucleotide database. 954 genes exhibiting the differentially expression at least one pair of comparison in all three libraries were identified. GO enrichment for these genes revealed gene response to biotic stimulus, immune system regulation, and immune response and cytokine production. Further, the pathways such as complement and coagulation cascades and Vibrio cholerae infection pathways were enriched in defensing of pathogen. Besides, 13,428 SSRs and 118,239 SNPs were detected in tongue sole, providing further support for genetic variation and marker-assisted selection in future. In summary, this study identifies several putative immune pathways and candidate genes deserving further investigation in the context of development of therapeutic regimens and lays the foundation for selecting resistant lines of C. semilaevis against V. anguillarum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Fish &amp Shellfish Immunology 12/2014; 43(1). DOI:10.1016/j.fsi.2014.11.018 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: De novo transcriptome sequencing is a robust method of predicting miRNA target genes, especially for organisms without reference genomes. Differentially expressed miRNAs had been identified previously in kidney samples collected from susceptible and resistant grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) affected by Aeromonas hydrophila. Target identification for these differentially expressed miRNAs poses a major challenge in this non-model organism. Two cDNA libraries constructed from mRNAs of susceptible and resistant C. idella were sequenced by Illumina Hiseq 2000 technology. A total of more than 100 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 199,593 transcripts which were further extensively annotated by comparing their sequences to different protein databases. Biochemical pathways were predicted from these transcript sequences. A BLASTx analysis against a non-redundant protein database revealed that 61,373 unigenes coded for 28,311 annotated proteins. Two cDNA libraries from susceptible and resistant samples showed that 721 unigenes were expressed at significantly different levels; 475 were significantly up-regulated and 246 were significantly down-regulated in the SG samples compared to the RG samples. The computational prediction of miRNA targets from these differentially expressed genes identified 188 unigenes as the targets of 5 conserved and 4 putative novel miRNA families. This study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying miRNA targets by transcriptome analysis. The transcriptome assembly data represent a substantial increase in the genomic resources available for C. idella and will provide insights into the gene expression profile analysis and the miRNA function annotations in further studies.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112722. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112722 · 3.53 Impact Factor

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