Hepatoprotective activity of Sonchus asper against carbon tetrachloride-induced injuries in male rats: a randomized controlled trial
ABSTRACT Sonchus asper (SAME) is used as a folk medicine in hepatic disorders. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of the methanol extract of SAME was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injuries in rats.
To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of SAME, 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into 6 groups. Rats of Group I (control) were given free access to approved feed and water. Rats of Group II were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (3 ml/kg) as a 30% solution in olive oil (v/v) twice a week for 4 weeks. Animals of Groups III (100 mg/kg) and IV (200 mg/kg) received SAME, whereas those of Group V were given silymarin via gavage (100 mg/kg) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment. Group VI received SAME (200 mg/kg) twice a week for 4 weeks without CCl4 treatment. Various parameters, such as the serum enzyme levels, serum biochemical marker levels, antioxidant enzyme activities, and liver histopathology were used to estimate the hepatoprotective efficacy of SAME.
The administration of SAME and silymarin significantly lowered the CCl4-induced serum levels of hepatic marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase), cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides while elevating high-density lipoprotein levels. The hepatic contents of glutathione and activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase were reduced. The levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances that were increased by CCl4 were brought back to control levels by the administration of SAME and silymarin. Liver histopathology showed that SAME reduced the incidence of hepatic lesions induced by CCl4 in rats.
SAME may protect the liver against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Naseer Shah, May 30, 2015
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ABSTRACT: The ability of Cichorium intybus root extract (chicory extract) to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity was evaluated in male rats. The rats were divided into four groups according to treatment: saline (control); chicory extract (100 mg/kg body weight daily, given orally for 2 weeks); CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection for 2 consecutive days only); or chicory extract (100 mg/kg body weight daily for 2 weeks) + CCl4 injection on days 16 and 17. The levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, and molecular biomarkers were estimated twenty-four hours after the last CCl4 injection. Pretreatment with chicory extract significantly reduced CCl4-induced elevation of malondialdehyde levels and nearly normalized levels of glutathione and activity of glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase, catalase (CAT), paraoxonase-1 (PON1), and arylesterase in the liver. Chicory extract also attenuated CCl4-induced downregulation of hepatic mRNA expression levels of GPx1, CAT and PON1 genes. Results of DNA fragmentation support the ability of chicory extract to ameliorate CCl4-induced liver toxicity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that chicory extract is rich in natural antioxidants and able to attenuate CCl4-induced hepatocellular injury, likely by scavenging reactive free radicals, boosting the endogenous antioxidant defense system, and overexpressing genes encoding antioxidant enzymes.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(3):e0121549. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121549 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sesamol, a component of sesame seed oil, exhibited significant antioxidant activity in a battery of in vitro and ex vivo tests including lipid peroxidation induced in rat liver homogenates. Latter established its potential for hepatoprotection. However, limited oral bioavailability, fast elimination (as conjugates) and tendency towards gastric irritation/toxicity (especially forestomach of rodents) may limit its usefulness. Presently, we packaged sesamol into solid lipid nanoparticles (S-SLNs) to enhance its biopharmaceutical performance and compared the efficacy with that of free sesamol and silymarin, a well established hepatoprotectant, against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic injury in rats, post induction. A self recovery group in which no treatment was given was used to observe the self-healing capacity of liver. S-SLNs prepared by microemulsification method were administered to rats post-treatment with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight (BW) twice weekly for 2 weeks, followed by 1.5 ml/kg BW twice weekly for the subsequent 2 weeks). Liver damage and recovery on treatment was assessed in terms of histopathology, serum injury markers (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and reduced glutathione) and a pro-inflammatory response marker (tumor necrosis factor alpha). S-SLNs (120.30 nm) at a dose of 8 mg/kg BW showed significantly better hepatoprotection than corresponding dose of free sesamol (FS; p < 0.001). Effects achieved with S-SLNs were comparable with silymarin (SILY), administered at a dose of 25 mg/kg BW. Self recovery group confirmed absence of regenerative capacity of hepatic tissue, post injury. Use of lipidic nanocarrier system for sesamol improved its efficiency to control hepatic injury. Enhanced effect is probably due to: a) improved oral bioavailability, b) controlled and prolonged effect of entrapped sesamol and iii) reduction in irritation and toxicity, if any, upon oral administration. S-SLNs may be considered as a therapeutic option for hepatic ailments as effectiveness post induction of liver injury, is demonstrated presently.BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 05/2015; 15(1):142. DOI:10.1186/s12906-015-0655-y · 1.88 Impact Factor
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology 01/2015; 10(1). DOI:10.3329/bjp.v10i1.20620 · 0.51 Impact Factor