Relationship between retinopathy severity, visual impairment and depression in persons with long-term type 1 diabetes.
ABSTRACT Our aim was to investigate the proportion of individuals with depression and its association with diabetic retinopathy and visual impairment in a cohort with 25 or more years of type 1 diabetes.
This was a cross-sectional analysis at the 25-year follow-up of the population-based cohort of the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. Examinations followed standardized protocols and included clinical and ophthalmic evaluations and questionnaires to assess current and past medical history, use of medications, and cigarette smoking. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was administered to all participants. Depression was defined as use of antidepressant or CES-D score ≥16.
A total of 484 individuals were included in the analysis. The proportion of depression was 37.8% (95% confidence interval 33.4-42.3%). A higher proportion of individuals with depression was observed among those with more severe diabetic retinopathy and visual impairment. However these associations were not statistically significant while controlling for other factors in the multivariable analyses.
Diabetic retinopathy severity and visual acuity in persons with long duration of type 1 diabetes were not cross-sectionally associated with depression in this cohort.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The course of depression in patients with comorbid medical illness is poorly understood. We report a 5-year follow-up study of 25 diabetic patients who had participated in an 8-week depression treatment trial. When a patient completed the trial, primary physicians were informed of patient outcomes and advised to monitor for relapse and treat those with ongoing depression. At the 5-year reevaluation depression was assessed using DSM-III-R criteria, and a depression severity scale was formed that reflected the presence, severity, frequency, and duration of depression episodes as well as a global assessment of functioning. Recurrence or persistence of depression occurred in 23 (92%) of the patients with an average of 4.8 depression episodes over the 5-year follow-up period. The duration of the longest episode averaged 16 +/- 4 months. Reversion to major depression occurred frequently and rapidly also in the subset that remitted during the treatment trial: 58.3% were depressed again within the first year. At the time of the follow-up interview, major depression was evident in 16 (64%) of the subjects, and glycemic control was significantly worse in this group compared with those without depression (gHb: 13.3% +/- 2.6% vs 11.1% +/- 1.9%, P = 0.03). Severity of depression over follow-up was related to the presence of neuropathy at entry and to incomplete remission during the initial treatment trial. Nineteen patients (82.6% of those who relapsed) received additional courses of antidepressant therapy, but none was treated continuously for depression prophylaxis. In this diabetic sample, depression was a recurrent condition in the vast majority of cases, and initial treatment response did not confer lasting euthymia. Whether maintenance antidepressant medication would be useful in preventing depression recurrence and promoting better glycemic control in diabetes remains to be studied.General Hospital Psychiatry 04/1997; 19(2):138-43. · 2.98 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The authors gave the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, a self-report depression symptom scale, to 528 subjects drawn from a larger longitudinal community survey. Interviewers also assessed respondents using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS), a structured clinical interview; on the basis of the SADS the subjects were then given diagnoses according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria. The results corroborated earlier findings of a modest relationship between self-reported symptoms of depression and the diagnosis of depression. The authors conclude that the CES-D Scale may be useful as an initial or first-stage screening test.American Journal of Psychiatry 02/1983; 140(1):41-6. · 14.72 Impact Factor
- Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 13(4):388-91. · 2.47 Impact Factor