[Microdissection testicular sperm extraction for non-obstructive azoospermia].
ABSTRACT Patients with non-obstructive azoospermia was once considered to be infertile due to impaired testicular spermatogenesis and consequent absence of sperm in the ejaculate. With the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), various testicular sperm retrieval techniques have been introduced recently, including fine needle aspiration, testicular sperm extraction, microdissection testicular sperm extraction, and so on. A large number of studies show that sperm can be retrieved in non-obstructive azoospermia patients, even in those with Klinefelter syndrome, because of the existence of isolated regions of spermatogenic tissue within the testis. 2010 EAU guidelines on male infertility recommend testicular sperm extraction or microdissection testicular sperm extraction for sperm retrieval from non-obstructive azoospermia. However, compared with testicular sperm extraction, the latter has a higher sperm retrieval rate with minimal postoperative complications. This article presents an overview on the prediction, operative procedure, sperm retrieval rate and postoperative complications of microdissection testicular sperm extraction.