[Microdissection testicular sperm extraction for non-obstructive azoospermia].
ABSTRACT Patients with non-obstructive azoospermia was once considered to be infertile due to impaired testicular spermatogenesis and consequent absence of sperm in the ejaculate. With the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), various testicular sperm retrieval techniques have been introduced recently, including fine needle aspiration, testicular sperm extraction, microdissection testicular sperm extraction, and so on. A large number of studies show that sperm can be retrieved in non-obstructive azoospermia patients, even in those with Klinefelter syndrome, because of the existence of isolated regions of spermatogenic tissue within the testis. 2010 EAU guidelines on male infertility recommend testicular sperm extraction or microdissection testicular sperm extraction for sperm retrieval from non-obstructive azoospermia. However, compared with testicular sperm extraction, the latter has a higher sperm retrieval rate with minimal postoperative complications. This article presents an overview on the prediction, operative procedure, sperm retrieval rate and postoperative complications of microdissection testicular sperm extraction.
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ABSTRACT: Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is considered to be a severe infertility factor due to impaired spermatogenesis with the consequent absence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate. However, the underlying etiology and mechanism(s) remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the mutation and association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the phosphoglycerate mutase 4 (PGAM4) gene in Chinese Han infertile men with NOA. The entire coding region of PGAM4 gene was sequenced from 214 participants including 103 infertile men with NOA and 111 controls with proven fertility. Screening was carried out using PCR and DNA sequencing to identify novel mutations and SNPs of the entire coding region of PGAM4. No mutation, including A138C or G539A, was detected in the coding region of PGAM4. One novel synonymous mutation (G111A, rs20100573) in control individuals was identified. There was no significant difference between NOA patients and controls in the G75C (rs138178131) frequencies (1.9% (2/103) and 4.5% (5/111), respectively, P = 0.292 and P = 0.374, adjusted by age). PGAM4 coding region mutations were not observed and the G75C polymorphism is not associated with NOA susceptibility among the Chinese Han population.Systems biology in reproductive medicine 05/2013; DOI:10.3109/19396368.2013.783887 · 1.70 Impact Factor