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perfil clínico, endoscópico e histológico de los tumores estromales gastrointestinales en el Hospital Rebagliati

ABSTRACT RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: Los Tumores Estromales Gastrointestinales (GIST) son lesiones que se originan a partir de las células intersticiales de Cajal, y pueden tomar cursos asintomáticos o producir complicaciones, como hemorragia digestiva y degeneración maligna. OBJETIVO: Determinar el perfil clínico, endoscópico e histológico de los pacientes con GIST diagnosticados en el Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins (Lima-Perú), en enero del 2002 y diciembre del 2004. MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, retrospectivo en el cual se revisaron las historias clínicas e informes anatomopatológicos de 34 pacientes con diagnóstico de GIST, vertiéndose los datos en una ficha de recolección. RESULTADOS: . Predominó el sexo masculino (58.82%) sobre el femenino. El grupo etáreo más afectado fue el de 71-80 años, con 26.47%, la edad promedio fue 64.7 años, con un rango de 30 a 86 años. La forma de presentación más frecuente fue dolor abdominal (47.06%) seguido de melena (44.12%). El diagnóstico se hizo por método endoscópico en 58.82%. El tipo histológico predominante fue el fusiforme (47.06%). Hubo riesgo de malignidad alto en 50% de casos, y la localización más frecuente fue estómago (61.77%). Endoscópicamente se manifiesta por la presencia de tumoración submucosa con ulceración y tamaño promedio de 6.44 cm. Se halló relación estadísticamente significativa entre método endoscópico y melena como forma de presentación (p<0.05). CONCLUSIÓN: Los pacientes con GIST en el HNERM son en su mayoría varones, mayores de 60 años, que se presentan con dolor abdominal y melena, y es la endoscopía el mejor método para diagnosticarlos si acuden por melena (p < 0.05). Predomina la histología fusiforme. ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST) are lesions which origin from Intersticial Cells of Cajal that may be asymptomatic or cause complications like digestive bleeding or malignant transformation. AIM: To determine the clinical, endoscopic and histological profile, as well as the main demographic features of patients with GIST in Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati (Lima-Perú) from January 2002 to December 2004. METHODS: Descriptive, transversal and retrospective study in which we reviewed clinical and anatomopathological archives from 34 patients with GIST during the above mentioned period. The collected data were placed on a sheet of recollection. RESULTS: There was male predominance (58.82%).The most affected age group was 71-80 years old (26.47%). The average age was 64.7 years old. The most frequent clinical presentation was abdominal pain (47.06%) followed by melena (44.12%). Diagnosis was made by endoscopic method in 58.82%. The main histological type was spindle (47.06%). There was high risk of malignancy in 50% and the most often involved site was stomach (61.77%). Endoscopicall the characteristic image was a submucosal tumor with ulceration, the average size was 6.44 cm. There was significant statistical relation (p< 0.05) between endoscopic method and melena.

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