Herschel-PACS spectroscopic diagnostics of local ULIRGs: Conditions and kinematics in Markarian 231

University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, OX1 3RH, Oxford, UK
Astronomy and Astrophysics (Impact Factor: 4.48). 07/2010; 518. DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201014676

ABSTRACT In this first paper on the results of our Herschel PACS survey of local ultra luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), as part of our SHINING survey of local galaxies, we present far-infrared spectroscopy of Mrk 231, the most luminous of the local ULIRGs, and a type 1 broad absorption line AGN. For the first time in a ULIRG, all observed far-infrared fine-structure lines in the PACS range were detected and all were found to be deficient relative to the far infrared luminosity by 1–2 orders of magnitude compared with lower luminosity galaxies. The deficits are similar to those for the mid-infrared lines, with the most deficient lines showing high ionization potentials. Aged starbursts may account for part of the deficits, but partial covering of the highest excitation AGN powered regions may explain the remaining line deficits. A massive molecular outflow, discovered in OH and 18 OH, showing outflow velocities out to at least 1400 km s −1 , is a unique signature of the clearing out of the molecular disk that formed by dissipative collapse during the merger. The outflow is characterized by extremely high ratios of 18 O/ 16 O suggestive of interstellar medium processing by advanced starbursts.

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    ABSTRACT: Recent observational studies have shown that H2O emission at (rest) submillimeter wavelengths is ubiquitous in infrared galaxies, both in the local and in the early Universe, suggestive of far-infrared pumping of H2O by dust in warm regions. In this work, models are presented that show that (i) the highest-lying H2O lines (E_{upper}>400 K) are formed in very warm (T_{dust}>~90 K) regions and require high H2O columns (N_{H2O}>~3x10^{17} cm^{-2}), while lower lying lines can be efficiently excited with T_{dust}~45-75 K and N_{H2O}~(0.5-2)x10^{17} cm^{-2}; (ii) significant collisional excitation of the lowest lying (E_{upper}<200 K) levels, which enhances the overall L_{H2O}-L_{IR} ratios, is identified in sources where the ground-state para-H2O 1_{11}-0_{00} line is detected in emission; (iii) the H2O-to-infrared (8-1000 um) luminosity ratio is expected to decrease with increasing T_{dust} for all lines with E_{upper}<~300 K, as has recently been reported in a sample of LIRGs, but increases with T_{dust} for the highest lying H2O lines (E_{upper}>400 K); (iv) we find theoretical upper limits for L_{H2O}/L_{IR} in warm environments, owing to H2O line saturation; (v) individual models are presented for two very different prototypical galaxies, the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 and the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220, showing that the excited submillimeter H2O emission is dominated by far-infrared pumping in both cases; (vi) the L_{H2O}-L_{IR} correlation previously reported in observational studies indicates depletion or exhaustion time scales, t_{dep}=Sigma_{gas}/Sigma_{SFR}, of <~12 Myr for star-forming sources where lines up to E_{upper}=300 K are detected, in agreement with the values previously found for (U)LIRGs from HCN millimeter emission...
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 06/2014; 567. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201423980 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present ALMA Cycle-0 observations of the CO (6-5) line emission and of the 435um dust continuum emission in the central kpc of NGC 1614, a local luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) at a distance of 67.8 Mpc (1 arcsec = 329 pc). The CO emission is well resolved by the ALMA beam (0".26 x 0".20) into a circum-nuclear ring, with an integrated flux of f_{CO(6-5)} = 898 (+-153) Jy km/s, which is 63(+-12)% of the total CO(6-5) flux measured by Herschel. The molecular ring, located between 100pc < r < 350pc from the nucleus, looks clumpy and includes seven unresolved (or marginally resolved) knots with median velocity dispersion of 40 km/s. These knots are associated with strong star formation regions with \Sigma_{SFR} 100 M_\sun/yr/kpc^{2} and \Sigma_{Gas} 1.0E4 M_\sun/pc^{2}. The non-detections of the nucleus in both the CO (6-5) line emission and the 435um continuum rule out, with relatively high confidence, a Compton-thick AGN in NGC 1614. Comparisons with radio continuum emission show a strong deviation from an expected local correlation between \Sigma_{Gas} and \Sigma_{SFR}, indicating a breakdown of the Kennicutt-Schmidt law on the linear scale of 100 pc.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2014; 799(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/11 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a framework for the interpretation of the far-infrared spectra of galaxies in which we have expanded the model parameters compared with previous work by varying the ionization parameter $U$, column density $N$(H), and gas density at the cloud face $n$(H$^{+}$) for a central starburst or AGN. We compare these models carried out with the $Cloudy$ spectral synthesis code to trends in line-to-total far-infrared luminosity ratios, far-infrared fine-structure line ratios, IRAS colors, and OH and H$_{2}$O column densities with trends found in the well-studied sample of ten nearby galaxies from the IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample with infrared luminosities greater than 10$^{10}$ L$_{\odot}$ and IRAS 60 micron fluxes equal to or greater than that of the nearby ULIRG Arp 220. We find that the spectral sequence extending from normal starburst-type emission line spectra to ULIRG-type absorption-dominated spectra with significant absorption from excited levels, can be best explained by simultaneously increasing the hydrogen column density, from as low as 10$^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$ to as high as 10$^{24.8}$ cm$^{-2}$ or greater, and the ionization parameter, from as low as 10$^{-4}$ to as high as 1. The starburst models best reproduce most of the sequence, while AGN models are somewhat better able to produce the high OH and H$_{2}$O column densities in Arp 220. Our results suggest that the molecular ISM in ULIRG-like, absorption-dominated systems is located close to and at least partially obscures the source of power throughout much of the far-infrared, which must be taken into account in order to properly interpret diagnostics of both their sources of power and of feedback.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2014; 795(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/795/2/117 · 6.28 Impact Factor

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