Herschel-PACS spectroscopic diagnostics of local ULIRGs: Conditions and kinematics in Markarian 231

Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 20375, Washington, DC, USA; Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), 85741, Garching, Germany; Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Spain; Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978, Tel Aviv, Israel; University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, OX1 3RH, Oxford, UK
Astronomy and Astrophysics (Impact Factor: 5.08). 01/2010; 518. DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201014676

ABSTRACT In this first paper on the results of our Herschel PACS survey of local ultra luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), as part of our SHINING survey of local galaxies, we present far-infrared spectroscopy of Mrk 231, the most luminous of the local ULIRGs, and a type 1 broad absorption line AGN. For the first time in a ULIRG, all observed far-infrared fine-structure lines in the PACS range were detected and all were found to be deficient relative to the far infrared luminosity by 1–2 orders of magnitude compared with lower luminosity galaxies. The deficits are similar to those for the mid-infrared lines, with the most deficient lines showing high ionization potentials. Aged starbursts may account for part of the deficits, but partial covering of the highest excitation AGN powered regions may explain the remaining line deficits. A massive molecular outflow, discovered in OH and 18 OH, showing outflow velocities out to at least 1400 km s −1 , is a unique signature of the clearing out of the molecular disk that formed by dissipative collapse during the merger. The outflow is characterized by extremely high ratios of 18 O/ 16 O suggestive of interstellar medium processing by advanced starbursts.

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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel-PACS observations of rest-frame mid-infrared and far-infrared spectral line emissions from two lensed, ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at high redshift: MIPS J142824.0+352619 (MIPS J1428), a starburst-dominated system at z = 1.3, and IRAS F10214+4724 (F10214), a source at z = 2.3 hosting both star-formation and a luminous AGN. We have detected [OI]63 micron and [OIII]52 micron in MIPS J1428, and tentatively [OIII]52 micron in F10214. Together with the recent ZEUS-CSO [CII]158 micron detection in MIPS J1428 we can for the first time combine [OI], [CII] and far-IR (FIR) continuum measurements for photo-dissociation (PDR) modeling of an ultra-luminous (L_IR > 10^12 L_sun) star forming galaxy at the peak epoch of cosmic star formation. We find that MIPS J1428, contrary to average local ULIRGs, does not show a deficit in [OI] relative to FIR. The combination of far-UV flux G_0 and gas density n (derived from the PDR models), as well as the star formation efficiency (derived from CO and FIR) is similar to normal or starburst galaxies, despite the high infrared luminosity of this system. In contrast, F10214 has stringent upper limits on [OIV] and [SIII], and an [OIII]/FIR ratio at least an order of magnitude lower than local starbursts or AGN, similar to local ULIRGs. Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, accepted by A&A Letters
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2010; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Ultra luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Mrk 231 reveals up to seven rotational lines of water (H2O) in emission, including a very high-lying (Eupper = 640 K) line detected at a 4σ level, within the Herschel/SPIRE wavelength range (190 < λ (μm) < 640), whereas PACS observations show one H2O line at 78 μm in absorption, as found for other H2O lines previously detected by ISO. The absorption/emission dichotomy is caused by the pumping of the rotational levels by far-infrared radiation emitted by dust, and subsequent relaxation through lines at longer wavelengths, which allows us to estimate both the column density of H2O and the general characteristics of the underlying far-infrared continuum source. Radiative transfer models including excitation through both absorption of far-infrared radiation emitted by dust and collisions are used to calculate the equilibrium level populations of H2O and the corresponding line fluxes. The highest-lying H2O lines detected in emission, with levels at 300-640 K above the ground state, indicate that the source of far-infrared radiation responsible for the pumping is compact (radius = 110-180 pc) and warm (Tdust = 85-95 K), accounting for at least 45% of the bolometric luminosity. The high column density, N(H2O) ~ 5×1017 cm-2, found in this nuclear component, is most probably the consequence of shocks/cosmic rays, an XDR chemistry, and/or an “undepleted chemistry” where grain mantles are evaporated. A more extended region, presumably the inner region of the 1-kpc disk observed in other molecular species, could contribute to the flux observed in low-lying H2O lines through dense hot cores, and/or shocks. The H2O 78 μm line observed with PACS shows hints of a blue-shifted wing seen in absorption, possibly indicating the occurrence of H2O in the prominent outflow detected in OH (Fischer et al. 2010, A&A, 518, L41). Additional PACS/HIFI observations of H2O lines are required to constrain the kinematics of the nuclear component, as well as the distribution of H2O relative to the warm dust. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

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