Article

TLM modeling of transformer with internal short circuit faults

COMPEL International Journal of Computations and Mathematics in Electrical (Impact Factor: 0.44). 11/2007; 26(5). DOI: 10.1108/03321640710823037

ABSTRACT Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe a technique for modeling transformer internal faults using transmission line modeling (TLM) method. In this technique, a model for simulating a two winding single phase transformer is modified to be suitable for simulating an internal fault in both windings. Design/methodology/approach – TLM technique is mainly used for modeling transformer internal faults. This was first developed in early 1970s for modeling two-dimensional field problems. Since, then, it has been extended to cover three dimensional problems and circuit simulations. This technique helps to solve integro-differential equations of the analyzed circuit. TLM simulations of a single phase transformer are compared to a custom built transformer in laboratory environment. Findings – It has been concluded from the real time studies that if an internal fault occurs on the primary or secondary winding, the primary current will increase a bit and secondary current does not change much. However, a very big circulating current flows in the shorted turns. This phenomenon requires a detailed modeling aspect in TLM simulations. Therefore, a detailed inductance calculation including leakages is included in the simulations. This is a very important point in testing and evaluating protective relays. Since, the remnant flux in the transformer core is unknown at the beginning of the TLM simulation, all TLM initial conditions are accepted as zero. Research limitations/implications – The modeling technique presented in this paper is based on a low frequency (up to a few kHz) model of the custom-built transformer. A detailed capacitance model must be added to obtain a high-frequency model of the transformer. A detailed arc model, aging problem of the windings will be applied to model with TLM þ finite element method. Originality/value – Using TLM technique for dynamical modeling of transformer internal faults is the main contribution. This is an extended version of an earlier referenced paper of the authors and includes inductance calculation, leakages calculation, and BH curve simulation while the referenced paper only includes piecewise linear inductance values. This modeling approach may help power engineers and power system experts understand the behavior of the transformer under internal faults.

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