Article

Mineralization of Drugs in Aqueous Medium by Advanced Oxidation Processes

Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta 01/2007; 25:19-41. DOI: 10.4152/pea.200701019

ABSTRACT At present chemical (AOPs) and electrochemical (EAOPs) advanced oxidation processes with ability to destroy organic pollutants in waters are being developed. These methods are based on the production of hydroxyl radical (• OH) as oxidant. In AOPs • OH radical can be obtained from Fenton's reaction between Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 added to the medium, photoreduction of Fe 3+ species or reaction between ozone and Fe 2+ . In EAOPs this radical is formed from water oxidation on the surface of a high O 2 -overvoltage anode and/or Fenton's reaction between Fe 2+ added to the medium and H 2 O 2 electrogenerated at the cathode by the two-electron reduction of oxygen. The present work reports the mineralization of several aromatic drugs such as paracetamol, ibuprofen, clofibric acid and salicylic acid by AOPs based on ozonation catalyzed by Fe 2+ , Cu 2+ and/or UVA light and EAOPs like anodic oxidation, electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton, which are environmentally friendly electrochemical methods. For the latter processes, the drug decay with time and the evolution of aromatic intermediates and generated carboxylic acids are studied. Anodic oxidation is only effective when a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode is used, whereas the photoelectro-Fenton process with Fe 2+ , Cu 2+ and UVA light is the most potent method to completely destroy the drugs. The combined use of catalysts Fe 2+ , Cu 2+ and UVA light in catalyzed ozonation also leads to overall decontamination of drug solutions.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
85 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Accounting is the language of business, increasingly standardized across the world through powerful global corporations: a technical skill used to reach the correct, unquestionable answer. Yet, as recent corporate scandals have shown, a whole range of financial professionals (auditors, bankers, analysts, company directors) can collectively fail to question dubious actions. How can this be possible? To understand such failures, this book explores how accountants construct the technical knowledge they deem relevant to decision-making. In doing so, it not only offers a new way to understand deviance and scandals, but also suggests a reappraisal of accounting knowledge which has important implications for everyday commercial life. The book's findings are based on interviews with chartered accountants working in the largest accountancy practices in London. The interviews reveal that although accounting decisions seem clear after they have been made, the process of making them is contested and opaque. Yet accountants nonetheless tend to describe their work as if it were straightforward and technical. Accountants' Truth digs beneath the surface to explore how accountants actually construct knowledge, and draws out the implications of that process with respect to issues such as professionalism, performance, transparency, and ethics. This important book concludes that accountants' technical discourse undermines their ethical reasoning by obscuring the ways in which accounting decisions must be thought through in practice. Accountants with particular ethical perspectives more readily understand and construct particular types of knowledge, so the two issues of knowledge and of ethics are inseparable. Increasingly technical accounting rules can therefore counterproductive. Instead, our best approach to avoiding future scandals is to redefine and reinvigorate professional ethics in the financial world.
    The British Accounting Review 09/2011; 43(3):247–248.
  • Source
    Journal of Environmental Engineering and Management. 01/2009; 19(5):257-265.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The adsorption of a diclofenac sodium medicine from aqueous solutions of different concentrations on expanded graphite, which was obtained as a result of the thermal treatment of graphite with perchloric acid, was studied. The recovery of diclofenac sodium from aqueous solution on expanded graphite was as high as 98–99%.
    Solid Fuel Chemistry 47(1). · 0.18 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
93 Downloads
Available from
Jun 1, 2014