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Efecto del tamaño de la incisión en la gravedad de la lesión de la vía biliar iatrogénica posterior a colecistectomía abierta

Unidad de Investigación en Epidemiología Clínica y; Departamento de Cirugía General, Unidad Médica de Alta Especialidad; Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente-IMSS, Guadalajara, Jal, México; Vallarta Universidad, Zapopan, Jalisco
01/2008; 144.

ABSTRACT RESUMEN Antecedentes: La lesión transoperatoria de la vía biliar durante la colecistectomía abierta y laparoscópica es un evento catastrófico que se asocia con morbilidad y mortalidad significativas. El objetivo fue documentar si el tamaño de la incisión en colecistec-tomía abierta está asociado a lesiones más complejas de la vía biliar. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo de marzo de 2006 a febrero de 2007. Se incluyeron 66 pacientes con lesiones de la vía biliar posterior a colecistectomía abierta. Se analizó el tamaño de la incisión. Resultados: Se incluyeron 66 pacientes, 70% del sexo femenino, con un promedio de edad de 44 años. El 70% fue tratado por colecistitis aguda. La mayoría tuvo sobrepeso o sufría diferentes grados de obesidad. En 76% de los casos, la lesión no fue advertida durante el procedimiento quirúrgico primario. Todos los pacientes con lesión de vía biliar grave (Strasberg E-3 y E-4) tuvieron incisiones menores a 10 cm de longitud. El tamaño de la incisión se asoció con lesiones inadvertidas (p=0.000), así como con el grado de lesión (p=0.000). No pudo demostrarse asociación estadística-mente significativa entre lesiones de la vía biliar y colecistectomía electiva o urgente, e incisión quirúrgica media o subcostal para la colecistectomía. Conclusiones: Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que el acceso quirúr- SUMMARY Background: Transoperative biliary tract injury during open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a catastrophic event associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Our objective was to determine if wound size during open cholecystectomy is associated with more complex biliary tract injuries. Methods: Prospective cohort study performed between March 2006 and February 2007. Sixty-six patients with biliary tract injuries after open cholecystectomy were included. Wound size was analyzed. Results: Sixty six patients were included, 70% were female with a median age of 44. Seventy four percent were treated for acute cholecystitis. Most participants were overweight or had various degrees of obesity. Biliary tract injuries were not recognized during the primary surgical procedure in 76% of cases. All patients with severe biliary tract injuries (Strasberg E-3 and E-4) had a wound size less than 10 cm in length. Wound size was associated with unrecognized injuries (p=0.000), as well as with injury severity (p=0.000). We were not able to demonstrate a statistically significant association between biliary tract injuries and elective or emergency surgical procedures and midline or subcostal surgical incision for cholecystectomy. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that minor surgical access during open cholecystectomy may constitute a risk factor since smaller incisions were associated with more severe biliary tract injuries and an inability to observe this damage during the surgical procedure. We suggest to adhere strictly to the guidelines of an adequate surgical exposure during open cholecystectomy to prevent biliary tract injuries.

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