Ammonia Adsorption on Bamboo Charcoal with Acid Treatment
ABSTRACT The effect of ammonia adsorption in aqueous solutions was examined for bamboo charcoal carbonized at 400, 700 and 1000°C, and activated carbon. Furthermore, the change of the ammonia adsorption in aqueous solutions was also examined by treatment of each sample with diluted sulfuric acid. Bamboo charcoal carbonized at 400°C and treated with diluted sulfuric acid was the most effective for removing ammonia from aqueous solutions. Al-though the ammonia adsorption of the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 400°C in gas phase hardly changed by the treatment with diluted sulfuric acid, that in aqueous solutions significantly increased by the treatment. duced and removing ammonia all year around is needed. Many reports have describes the adsorption of ammonia gas by activated carbon and charcoal. 7–19) The charcoal carbonized from 400 to 500°C is found effective for the adsorption of basic ammonia gas due to many acidic functional groups on its sur-face. 7–11) It is also described that the adsorption amount of the ammonia gas on activated carbon in-creases by modifying the acidic functional groups on the surface of the activated carbon with an oxi-dizing reagent. 20,21) In aqueous solutions, properties differing from the gas phase are expected because ammonia with a high solubility in water is easily soluble and NH 4 + is formed on the basis of the solu-tion of pH. However, the properties of the ammonia adsorption in aqueous solutions have not been re-ported except for ammonia adsorption in the gas phase on activated carbon and charcoal. In this study, the relation between the carbonization temperature and ammonia adsorption was examined in order to effectively remove ammonia from aqueous solutions. Furthermore, the improvement of the adsorption capacity of ammonia by treatment with dilute acid was examined.
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Article: Ammonia Adsorption on Bamboo Charcoal with Acid Treatment
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- "Therefore, it is highly important to address the effects of crop straw-derived biochar on NH 3 volatilization from different soils and crop rotation systems before recommending full-scale application of this biochar to Chinese croplands. Biochar can strongly adsorb NH 3 due to the presence of acidic functional groups (Iyobe et al. 2004; Asada et al. 2006; Kastner et al. 2009). Taghizdeh-Toosi et al. (2012a, b) reported that incorporating wood-based biochar with a neutral pH (7.8) into an acidic soil (pH 5.5) decreased NH 3 volatilization from ruminant urine, and they demonstrated the bioavailability of absorbed NH 3 using 15 N tracing. "
ABSTRACT: Aims A pot study spanning four consecutive crop seasons was conducted to compare the effects of successive rice straw biochar/rice straw amendments on C sequestration and soil fertility in rice/wheat rotated paddy soil. Methods We adopted 4.5 t ha−1, 9.0 t ha−1 biochar and 3.75 t ha−1 straw for each crop season with an identical dose of NPK fertilizers. Results We found no major losses of biochar-C over the 2-year experimental period. Obvious reductions in CH4 emission were observed from rice seasons under the biochar application, despite the fact that the biochar brought more C into the soil than the straw. N2O emissions with biochar were similar to the controls without additives over the 2-year experimental period. Biochar application had positive effects on crop growth, along with positive effects on nutrient (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) uptake by crop plants and the availability of soil P, K, Ca and Mg. High levels of biochar application over the course of the crop rotation suppressed NH3 volatilization in the rice season, but stimulated it in the wheat season. Conclusions Converting straw to biochar followed by successive application to soil is viable for soil C sequestration, CH4 mitigation, improvements of soil and crop productivity. Biochar soil amendment influences NH3 volatilization differently in the flooded rice and upland wheat seasons, respectively.Plant and Soil 05/2014; 378(1-2):279-294. DOI:10.1007/s11104-014-2025-9 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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- "KCl extraction solution, the adsorbed NH 4 + could hardly be released from a biochar derived from peanut stalk (Saleh et al. 2012) but with over 90% recovered from a biochar produced from greenwaste (Eldridge et al. 2010), suggesting that the release of the adsorbed NH 4 + may be biochar-dependent. A reasonable explanation for the " loss " of NH 4 + in this study is NH 4 + adsorption by the biochar derived from cotton stalk (Asada et al. 2006; Taghizadeh-Toosi et al. 2012; Spokas et al. 2012). It should be noted that the NH 4 + adsorption by the biochar should not affect our measurement of PAO in this study, because the ammonium adsorption by the positive charges is exchangeable and thus available to nitrifiers, and that the PAO was calculated based on the difference of ammonia oxidation product (i.e. "
ABSTRACT: Biochar amendments have frequently been reported to alter microbial communities and biogeochemical processes in soils. However, the impact of biochar application on bacterial (AOB) and archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOA) remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the responses of AOB and AOA to the application of biochar derived from cotton stalk at rates of 5, 10 and 20% by weight to a coastal alkaline soil during a 12-week incubation. The results showed that the amoA gene of AOB consistently outnumbered that of AOA, whereas only the AOA amoA gene copy number was significantly correlated with the potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) rate (P<0.01). The significant decrease of PAO rates in biochar treatments occurred after incubation for 4-6 weeks, which were distinctly longer than that in the control (2 weeks). The PAO rates were significantly different among treatments during the first 4 weeks of incubation (P<0.05), with the highest usually in the 10% treatment. Biochar application significantly increased the abundance of both nitrifiers in the 4 weeks of incubation (P<0.05). Biochar amendment also decreased AOA diversity but increased AOB diversity, resulted in different community structures of both nitrifiers (P<0.01), as shown by the differences between the 5% biochar and the control treatments. We conclude that biochar application generally enhanced the abundance and altered the composition of ammonia oxidizers; the rate of biochar application also affected the rate and dynamics of nitrification, and risk for increasing the alkalinity and N leaching of the studied soil was lower with a lower application rate.Biology and Fertility of Soils 01/2014; 50(2):321-332. DOI:10.1007/s00374-013-0857-8 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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- "Colonization of the surfaces of pine wood biochar by saprophytic fungi occurred more rapidly when biochar contained a greater number of cracks that the fungi could easily penetrate (Ascough et al ., 2010). Also, the sorption of easily degradable organic compounds and dissolved organic matter (DOC) and chemisorption of ammonium (NH 4 + ) (Asada et al ., 2006) at biochar surfaces because of the presence of functional groups there promotes its suitability as a favourable habitat (Wardle et al ., 1998; Pietikainen et al ., 2000; Thies & Rillig, 2009). "
ABSTRACT: The stability of biochar in soils is the cornerstone of the burgeoning worldwide interest in the potential of the pyrolysis/biochar platform for carbon (C) sequestration. While biochar is more recalcitrant in soil than the original organic feedstock, an increasing number of studies report greater C‐mineralization in soils amended with biochar than in unamended soils. Soil organisms are believed to play a central role in this process. In this review, the variety of interactions that occur between soil micro‐, meso‐ and macroorganisms and biochar stability are assessed. In addition, different factors reported to influence biochar stability, such as biochar physico‐chemical characteristics, soil type, soil organic carbon (SOC) content and agricultural management practices are evaluated. A meta‐analysis of data in the literature revealed that biochar‐C mineralization rates decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature, biochar‐C content and time. Enhanced release of CO2 after biochar addition to soil may result from (i) priming of native SOC pools, (ii) biodegradation of biochar components from direct or indirect stimulation of soil organisms by biochar or (iii) abiotic release of biochar‐C (from carbonates or chemi‐sorbed CO2). Observed biphasic mineralization rates suggest rapid mineralization of labile biochar compounds by microorganisms, with stable aromatic components decomposed at a slower rate. Comparatively little information is available on the impact of soil fauna on biochar stability in soil, although they may decrease biochar particle size and enhance its dispersion in the soil. Elucidating the impacts of soil fauna directly and indirectly on biochar stability is a top research priority.European Journal of Soil Science 08/2013; 64(4):379–390. DOI:10.1111/ejss.12064 · 2.65 Impact Factor