Ammonia Adsorption on Bamboo Charcoal with Acid Treatment

Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 956– 8603, Niigata, Niigata, Japan
Journal of health science (Impact Factor: 0.8). 10/2006; 52(5):585-589. DOI: 10.1248/jhs.52.585


The effect of ammonia adsorption in aqueous solutions was examined for bamboo charcoal carbonized at 400, 700 and 1000°C, and activated carbon. Furthermore, the change of the ammonia adsorption in aqueous solutions was also examined by treatment of each sample with diluted sulfuric acid. Bamboo charcoal carbonized at 400°C and treated with diluted sulfuric acid was the most effective for removing ammonia from aqueous solutions. Al-though the ammonia adsorption of the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 400°C in gas phase hardly changed by the treatment with diluted sulfuric acid, that in aqueous solutions significantly increased by the treatment. duced and removing ammonia all year around is needed. Many reports have describes the adsorption of ammonia gas by activated carbon and charcoal. 7–19) The charcoal carbonized from 400 to 500°C is found effective for the adsorption of basic ammonia gas due to many acidic functional groups on its sur-face. 7–11) It is also described that the adsorption amount of the ammonia gas on activated carbon in-creases by modifying the acidic functional groups on the surface of the activated carbon with an oxi-dizing reagent. 20,21) In aqueous solutions, properties differing from the gas phase are expected because ammonia with a high solubility in water is easily soluble and NH 4 + is formed on the basis of the solu-tion of pH. However, the properties of the ammonia adsorption in aqueous solutions have not been re-ported except for ammonia adsorption in the gas phase on activated carbon and charcoal. In this study, the relation between the carbonization temperature and ammonia adsorption was examined in order to effectively remove ammonia from aqueous solutions. Furthermore, the improvement of the adsorption capacity of ammonia by treatment with dilute acid was examined.

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Available from: Takashi Asada, Feb 26, 2015
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    • "The research community continues to debate the effectiveness of biochar as a soil amendment, and the extent to which it modifies the soil nitrogen cycle and reduces NH 3 emissions (Clough & Condron, 2010). The capacity of biochar to adsorb NH 4 + has been recognized generally (Asada et al., 2006), but the physical and chemical mechanisms behind these processes are still not fully understood. Biochar surface adsorption of nutrients (such as NH 4 + and other cations) is associated with increased cation exchange capacity (CEC), surface area and surface attachment of acidic functional groups (such as carboxylic groups) (Gundale & DeLuca, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Combining amendments to the soil made by biochar or hydrochar with nitrogen (N) fertilizer can modify soil N dynamics and availability. Such a response suggests that these amendments would affect ammonia (NH3) emissions from slurry similarly, and potentially reduce volatilization of NH3. This study measured the potential emissions of NH3 following application of pig slurry to the surface of silt-loam and loam soils amended with biochar and hydrochar (both derived from Miscanthus × giganteus (Greef et Deu)) at a rate of 3% soil dry weight (16 t ha−1 soil area, on average) and 60% water-filled pore space (WFPS). The experiment was carried out in a dynamic chamber connected to a photo-acoustic trace gas analyser in a controlled climate (20°C) for 48 hours. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) in total emissions were observed between both treatment and soil types. Surprisingly, both amendments increased emissions of NH3 compared with the control; cumulative NH3 emissions averaged 38.7 and 23.5% of applied total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) for hydrochar and biochar, respectively, whereas it was 18.2% for the control. The larger emissions in hydrochar-amended soil were attributed to the reduced ability to absorb NH4+ associated with greater hydrophobicity and strong pH buffering of the slurry. Furthermore, final soil analyses with deionised water extracts showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in mineral N concentration between treatments. The smaller ammonium concentrations in biochar-amended soil suggest that some NH4+-N was immobilized by adsorption on to biochar surfaces. This study observed that biochar and hydrochar properties, as well as soil characteristics, play important roles in controlling NH3 emissions from surface slurry applications. The results obtained identified circumstances where these amendments even enhance volatilization, which provides new information on and insight into the extent and limitations of the potential of biochar and hydrochar for the mitigation of emissions.
    European Journal of Soil Science 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/ejss.12302 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    • "Therefore, it is highly important to address the effects of crop straw-derived biochar on NH 3 volatilization from different soils and crop rotation systems before recommending full-scale application of this biochar to Chinese croplands. Biochar can strongly adsorb NH 3 due to the presence of acidic functional groups (Iyobe et al. 2004; Asada et al. 2006; Kastner et al. 2009). Taghizdeh-Toosi et al. (2012a, b) reported that incorporating wood-based biochar with a neutral pH (7.8) into an acidic soil (pH 5.5) decreased NH 3 volatilization from ruminant urine, and they demonstrated the bioavailability of absorbed NH 3 using 15 N tracing. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims A pot study spanning four consecutive crop seasons was conducted to compare the effects of successive rice straw biochar/rice straw amendments on C sequestration and soil fertility in rice/wheat rotated paddy soil. Methods We adopted 4.5 t ha−1, 9.0 t ha−1 biochar and 3.75 t ha−1 straw for each crop season with an identical dose of NPK fertilizers. Results We found no major losses of biochar-C over the 2-year experimental period. Obvious reductions in CH4 emission were observed from rice seasons under the biochar application, despite the fact that the biochar brought more C into the soil than the straw. N2O emissions with biochar were similar to the controls without additives over the 2-year experimental period. Biochar application had positive effects on crop growth, along with positive effects on nutrient (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) uptake by crop plants and the availability of soil P, K, Ca and Mg. High levels of biochar application over the course of the crop rotation suppressed NH3 volatilization in the rice season, but stimulated it in the wheat season. Conclusions Converting straw to biochar followed by successive application to soil is viable for soil C sequestration, CH4 mitigation, improvements of soil and crop productivity. Biochar soil amendment influences NH3 volatilization differently in the flooded rice and upland wheat seasons, respectively.
    Plant and Soil 05/2014; 378(1-2):279-294. DOI:10.1007/s11104-014-2025-9 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    • "KCl extraction solution, the adsorbed NH 4 + could hardly be released from a biochar derived from peanut stalk (Saleh et al. 2012) but with over 90% recovered from a biochar produced from greenwaste (Eldridge et al. 2010), suggesting that the release of the adsorbed NH 4 + may be biochar-dependent. A reasonable explanation for the " loss " of NH 4 + in this study is NH 4 + adsorption by the biochar derived from cotton stalk (Asada et al. 2006; Taghizadeh-Toosi et al. 2012; Spokas et al. 2012). It should be noted that the NH 4 + adsorption by the biochar should not affect our measurement of PAO in this study, because the ammonium adsorption by the positive charges is exchangeable and thus available to nitrifiers, and that the PAO was calculated based on the difference of ammonia oxidation product (i.e. "
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    ABSTRACT: Biochar amendments have frequently been reported to alter microbial communities and biogeochemical processes in soils. However, the impact of biochar application on bacterial (AOB) and archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOA) remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the responses of AOB and AOA to the application of biochar derived from cotton stalk at rates of 5, 10 and 20% by weight to a coastal alkaline soil during a 12-week incubation. The results showed that the amoA gene of AOB consistently outnumbered that of AOA, whereas only the AOA amoA gene copy number was significantly correlated with the potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) rate (P<0.01). The significant decrease of PAO rates in biochar treatments occurred after incubation for 4-6 weeks, which were distinctly longer than that in the control (2 weeks). The PAO rates were significantly different among treatments during the first 4 weeks of incubation (P<0.05), with the highest usually in the 10% treatment. Biochar application significantly increased the abundance of both nitrifiers in the 4 weeks of incubation (P<0.05). Biochar amendment also decreased AOA diversity but increased AOB diversity, resulted in different community structures of both nitrifiers (P<0.01), as shown by the differences between the 5% biochar and the control treatments. We conclude that biochar application generally enhanced the abundance and altered the composition of ammonia oxidizers; the rate of biochar application also affected the rate and dynamics of nitrification, and risk for increasing the alkalinity and N leaching of the studied soil was lower with a lower application rate.
    Biology and Fertility of Soils 01/2014; 50(2):321-332. DOI:10.1007/s00374-013-0857-8 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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