Determinants of financial wellness among Malaysia workers

Department of Business Management (Rasht Branch), Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Guilan, Iran
African Journal of Business Management 11/2011; 5:10092-10100.


The purpose of this study was to examine determinants that influence financial wellness. The results of this study can be used for better understanding on the relationships between and among determinants of financial wellness by highlighting the relationships among demographic characteristics, financial literacy, financial behaviors, financial stress, and financial wellness. Samples were selected using multi-stage sampling technique among employees in public and private sectors. A total of 2000 completed questionnaires were analyzed using path analysis to identify direct and indirect effects on financial wellness. The findings identified that financial wellness were financial behaviors, financial stress level, financial literacy, income, gender, marital status, home ownership, and education had either a direct or indirect effect on financial wellness. Age and ethnicity were found not significantly affect the financial satisfaction.

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    ABSTRACT: Online shopping is becoming popular throughout the world including Malaysia. This study is to determine the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of online shopping among Malaysian consumers based on previous researches. Previous studies examining the role of Subjective norms (SN), previous purchase experience (PPE) and perceived risk (PR) were inconsistent and a higher proportion of the findings were with respect to consumers behavior in the West which cannot be directly applied to a cross-cultural context. The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationships between these variables and the variables of technology acceptance model (TAM) associated with consumer's online shopping intention. The research model reflecting the effects of SN, PPE, PR on TAM constructs has been proposed. In total 258 valid cases were gathered through a web-based self-administered survey. Reliability test was carried out using Cronbach alpha and all constructs tested were above 0.70 which defines high correlation of the constructs. It was found that PR, perceived ease of use (PEOU) and Perceived usefulness (PU) had a positive effect on online shopping. Nevertheless SN had a negative effect on both PU and PEOU. And PPE had a significantly positive effect on PR.
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