Wetlands of Sivasagar District of Assam as Congenial Habitat for Amphibia
ABSTRACT The Sivasagar district (26 0 3 / -27 0 15 / N latitude and 94 0 23 / E-95 0 23 / E longitude) has a grate number of diversified water bodies supporting a wide variety of aquatic and marshy flora. These water bodies serve as suitable natural habitat and breeding grounds for a variety of amphibian species. These wetlands are fed by the tributaries of river Brahamputra. The main tributaries traversing the district are Dekhow, Dechang and Jaji. Numerous man made tanks excavated during the Ahom reign are unique feature of the district. The Panidihing bird sanctuary is located in the northern part of district Most of the water bodies were surveyed and some of the wetlands have been identified which are active breeding grounds of most of the frogs including certain rare species of conservational importance. So some of the natural habitats can be protected for in situ conservation of amphibian fauna. A total of 25 species have been identified so far in our study during 2004-2006.
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ABSTRACT: An investigation has been made on the relevance of one such lesser known species Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. (Vernacular name -sushni saag) commonly used by 'Ho' tribes in the mining belt of Jaduguda, Jharkhand (India) for its culinary and medicinal properties. Besides exploring indigenous knowledge of local tribals, the study also incorporates the survey of local markets in and around Jaduguda. Information was collected from the local tribal people (Ho) as well as local drug sellers in the Haat (local market) pertaining to use of Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. It is a pteridophytic plant that is marketed and used by tribals of that area for its nerve relaxant nature and curative properties for various other ailments of nervous system and its nutritional value. The present paper compiles botanical description of M. quadrifolia Linn., its traditional folk medicinal uses and marketing and monetary benefit to the villagers.International Journal of Life Science and Pharma Research. 01/2012; Vol 2(Issue 3):99-104.
Sengupta, M. and Dalwani, R. (Editors). 2008
Proceedings of Taal2007: The 12th World Lake Conference: 525-528
Wetlands of Sivasagar District of Assam as Congenial Habitat for
Tutul Bortamuli 1* and Sabitry Bordoloi2
1 Department of Zoology, gargaon college, Simaluguri, Dist- Sivasagar, Assam, Pin- 785686, India,
2 Resource Management and Environment Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology,
Vigyan Path, Pschim Boragaon, Guwahati, Assam, Pin-781035 , India,
*corresponding author: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Sivasagar district (2603/-27015/N latitude and 940 23/E- 95023/E longitude) has a grate number of
diversified water bodies supporting a wide variety of aquatic and marshy flora. These water bodies serve
as suitable natural habitat and breeding grounds for a variety of amphibian species. These wetlands are
fed by the tributaries of river Brahamputra. The main tributaries traversing the district are Dekhow,
Dechang and Jaji. Numerous man made tanks excavated during the Ahom reign are unique feature of the
district. The Panidihing bird sanctuary is located in the northern part of district Most of the water bodies
were surveyed and some of the wetlands have been identified which are active breeding grounds of most
of the frogs including certain rare species of conservational importance. So some of the natural habitats
can be protected for in situ conservation of amphibian fauna. A total of 25 species have been identified
so far in our study during 2004-2006.
Keywords: Amphidia, Assam, Sivasagar, Wetland
Assam (24.30N-280N latitude and 89.50E-96.10E
longitude) abounds in large number of wet lands. The
Sivasagar District (2603/-27015/N latitude and 940
23/E- 95023/E longitude) is traversed by three
tributaries Dekhow, Dichang, and Jaji of the river
Brahmaputra. Swamp areas are called beels in
Assam. There are about 32 such beels in the district.
All these lotic and lentic habitats are congenial
habitats for large number of fauna including
Amphibia. Amphibia are considered as indicator
species of global climatic change. High diversity of
amphibia in these water bodies indicate low level of
pollution in these water bodies. Pilot scale analysis of
water also shows absence of organic and inorganic
Earth is facing its largest mass extinction since
the disappearance of the dinosaurs (Amphibian ark,
2007). It has been estimated that nearly one third
(33%) of the world’s 5918 (GAA, 2006) amphibian
species which have thrived for 360 million years are
in danger of extinction. So any loss and modification
of the wetlands have great influence on the survival
of the amphibian fauna.
Studies on Anurans of North East (N.E) India
were first published by Chanda (1994) and reported
54 species of toads and frogs. Dutta (1997) reported
69 species of amphibia (67 anurans, 1 gymnophiona,
1 caudata) from N.E region of India. Firoz etal
(2000) first recorded Polypedates taeniatus from
Assam. Choudhury et. al (2001) have reported 20
species from Kamrup district of Assam. Bordoloi
(2002) reported one new record of frog for India
from Arunachal Pradesh. Chanda (2002) in his hand
book of India reported 64 species of amphibian (60
anurans, 3 gymnophiona, and 1 caudata) from N.E
India. Ao et. al (2003) reported 5 new records for
India from Nagaland. Das et. al (2004) published a
new species of Kaloula from North East India. Sen
(2004) has published the total amphibian of N.E.
India as 83 species. Borthakur et. al (2007) has
reported four Fejervarya species from Assam. The
total amphibian fauna so far recorded and reported
from N.E India is 94.
There are large numbers of unexplored or under
explored inaccessible habitats of amphibia. Hence
the list of total number of species of frogs from this
region is far from complete. The present work
records 25 species from the district.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The amphibian survey in Sivasagar district was
started from 2004.Most of the wetlands in Charaideo
sub – division of Sivasagar district was surveyed in
search of adult and tadpole stages. So certain
wetlands were identified as suitable breeding
grounds of different species of frogs. Collection was
done by visual encounter survey and survey of
breeding sites. Frogs were recorded in the field.
Sometimes frogs killed for other purpose (food,
medicine) were kept for later study. They were
preserved in 8% formaldehyde
Confirmation of identification has been done with
existing literature such as Boulenger (1890, 1920,
Chanda (1994, 2002), Dutta (1997) Dubois & Ohler
(2000), Ao etal (2003)
The Sivasagar District is Bordered on the North by
Dibrugarh district, on
Brahamaputra and Jorhat district. The south east
boundary of the district is an interstate boundary with
Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh. The district is
situated in the south bank of river Brahmaputra
spread over an area of 2668 Km2. The inter-state
boundary comprises of the foothills of Patkai and
Naga hills. The altitude varies between 86-150m
above msl. (Mean sea level) The climate of the
District is tropical with high humidity. The summer
and winter temperature vary from 120C to 360C. The
natural vegetation is mostly of tropical evergreen
type. The average annual rainfall of the district varies
from 1461mm to 204mm. The district has several
reserved forests. The percentage of forest area to
total geographical area is 11.08%. The forest area is
highest in Charaideo Sub-Division i.e. 17.18%.
EXPLORATION OF FAUNA
List of frogs recorded from Sivasagar District of
Species recorded during present investigation
Sl.No SPECIES NAME
1. Bufo melanostictus (Schneider, 1799)
2. Bufo Stomaticus (Lutken, 1862)
3. Bufo cyphosus (Ye, 1977)
4. Microhyla ornate (Dumeril and
5. Uperodon globulosus (Gunther, 1864)
6. Polypedates leucomystax (Gravenhorst, 1829) LC
7. Rhacophorus maximus (Gunther, 1858) LC
8. Rhacophorus bipunctatus (Ahl, 1972) LC
9. Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schneider, 799) LC
10. Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Lesson, 1834) LC
11. Fejervarya nepalensis (Dubois, 1975) LC
12. Fejervarya teraiensis (Dubois, 1984) LC
13. Fejervarya syhadrensis (Annandale, 1919) LC
14. Hoplobatrachus crassus (Jerdon, 1853) LC
15. Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin, 1803) LC
16. Rana alticola (Boulenger, 1882)
17. Rana erythraea (Schlegel, 1837) LC
18. Rana humeralis (Boulenger, 1887) LC
19. Rana leptoglossa (Theobald, 1868) LC
20. Rana tytleri Theobald, 1868) LC
the west by river
B. Species recorded by earlier workers from
Sivsagar district, Assam
21 Xenophrys parva (Boulenger, 1893)
22. Hyla annectans (Jerdon, 1870)
23. Microhyla rubra (Jerdon, 1853)
24. Rhacophorus tuberculatus
25. Limnonectes laticeps (Boulenger, 1882) LC
LC-Least concerned DD-Data deficient IUCN
Conservation status after GAA 2007.
Naming of the species is followed according to
GAA 2007 (Global
Reference of D.R. Frost (2007) also has been
consulted for naming of the species.
B. Major wetlands (Beel) of Sivasagar District
identified as breeding grounds for amphibia.
2. Bhaga beel
3. Helonee beel
4. Bhajo beel
5. Gutighat beel
6. Ashini beel
8. Dhemaji beel
9. Pani beel
10. Kani beel
11. Mori Dikhow beel
12. Telpani beel
13. Jalbhari beel
14. Ghuran garia beel
15. Gali beel
16. Ganakar loor siga beel
17. Bholak beel
18. Miripather beel
19. Tinikunia beel
20. Sagoli beel
21. Goroi mari beel
22. Kekura khati beel
23. Singarijan beel
24. Ghuka beel
25. Gela demow beel
26. Garjan beel
27. Balijan beel
28. Nalghugari beel
29. Sagunpara beel
30. Kunduli Jan beel
31. Mahghuli beel
32. Ujantali beel
AQUATIC VEGETATION FOUND IN AMPHIAN
1. Eichornia crassipes
2. Alpinia allughas
3. Clinogyne dichotoma
4. Trapa bispinosa
5. Arundo donax
6. Phragmites karka
7. Imperata cylindrical
8. Pistia stratiotes
9. Hydrilla vertecillata
10. Monochoria hastate
11. Monochoria vaginalis
12. Lasia spinosa
13. Lemna minor
14. Azolla pinnata
15. Marsilea minuta
16. Marsilea quadrifolia
17. Salvinia cucullata
18. Jussiae repens
19. Thysanolaena maxima
20. Tamarix dioica
21. Ipomoea aquatica
22. Ipomoea fistulosa
23. Ceratophyllum demersum
24. Saccharum arundinaceum
The total numbers of species so far recorded are
twenty five, belong to six different families. Out of
these twenty five species, five species were recorded
by earlier workers. In the present survey 20 more
species have been recorded from this district.
Thorough survey during breeding season may raise
the number. Amphibian decline has been recorded
world over. Various causes like cytrid fungus,
pollution, and Industrial pollution have been
attributed to amphibian decline. As we lack previous
data we can not comment on the decline of species.
Detailed survey and documentation has become very
urgent because habitat deterioration has set in and we
may loose some of these breeding grounds in future
causing decline of these fauna. This is the most
authentic scientific survey in this district. Sylvirana
group has been found to be dominant as Rana
alticola, Rana erythraea, Rana humeralis, Rana
leptoglossa, Rana tytleri were recorded from these
habitats. Forest species are highly sensitive to change
in water quality. Presence of forest species like R.
leptoglossa, Rhacophorus maximas, R. humeralis etc.
shows that these lentic habitats are congenial
breeding grounds of frogs and toads.
The authors are thankful to Dr. J. Chutia, Director of
IASST, Guwahati for providing necessary laboratory
facilities during the study. Thanks are due to Dr. P.
Gogoi, Principal, Gargaon College, Simaluguri for
giving necessary leave and assistance to T. Bortamuli
for the study period.
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