Possible methods for biodiesel production

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (Impact Factor: 5.63). 01/2007; 11:1300-1311. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2005.08.006

ABSTRACT Biodiesel production is a very modern and technological area for researchers due to the relevance that it is winning everyday because of the increase in the petroleum price and the environmental advantages. In this work it is made a review of the alternative technological methods that could be used to produce this fuel. Different studies have been carried out using different oils as raw material, different alcohol (methanol, ethanol, buthanol) as well as different catalysts, homogeneous ones such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and supercritical fluids, and heterogeneous ones such as lipases. In this work advantages and disadvantages of technologies are listed and for all of them a kinetics model is introduced.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to standardize the esterification process parameters for the production of methyl ester of raw hemp oil. The effect of process parameters such as molar ratio, catalyst concentration, and reaction time was studied to standardize the esterification process and for estimating the highest recovery of ester with lowest possible viscosity. Based on the observations from the ester recovery and kinematic viscosity, it can be seen that raw hemp oil at 6:1 M ratio may be reacted with methanol at 60 °C reaction temperature for 45 min in the presence of 2 g of KOH and then allowed to settle for 24 h in order to get lowest kinematic viscosity with ester recovery of 90.62%. The yield of hemp methyl ester was found to be 90.62% with oil methanol ratio of 0.37 w/w and 0.01 w/w alkali catalyst. Different fuel properties such as density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, fire point, cloud point, pour point, free fatty acid content and calorific value of the hemp methyl ester and hemp oil were measured. From the properties and engine test results it has been established that methyl ester of hemp oil can be substituted for diesel oil. Methyl ester of above non-edible oil has several advantages among other new renewable and engine fuel alternatives along with its environmental benefits.
    Biomass and Bioenergy 41:14–20. · 3.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Currently, the continuous synthesis of biodiesel has been widely studied due to a series of problems imposed by biphasic reactions and thermodynamics, as well as to reduce production costs. In this work, five parameters, including the size of aperture plate, temperature, oil-to-methanol molar ratio, MeONa dosage, and residence time, had been experimentally discussed. Higher yields could be obtained with 3 wt% catalyst loading at 75 °C. The effect of aperture size on the yield was also investigated. By using one aperture (164°) plate with a size of 300 μm, a higher yield could be reached. Graphical abstract .
    Monatshefte fuer Chemie/Chemical Monthly · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Four different Me/Al2O3 (Me=Na, Ba, Ca, and K) powder catalysts prepared by incipient-wetness impregnation, and a K/Al2O3-cordierite monolithic catalyst produced by the dipcoating technique were used for biodiesel production. The samples were characterized and studied in the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol at 120°C and 500rpm, with a alcohol/oil molar ratio=32, and a catalyst load=1 wt% for the powder catalyst and 0.5 wt% for the monolith. The Ca/Al2O3, Na/Al2O3 and K/Al2O3 powder catalysts reported a FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) formation of 94.7, 97.1, and 98.9% respectively after 6h of reaction. On the other hand, Ba/Al2O3 showed little activity (7.6%). The leaching of the alkali and alkaline earth metal species during reaction was important, what indicates that the activity could be explained in terms of a homogeneous–heterogeneous catalyst effect. When the monolithic sample and the powder catalyst were compared (under identical reaction conditions), the production of FAME for the latter was 89.5–59.1% for the monolithic catalyst. After two consecutive runs, the monolithic catalyst presented a partial deactivation of 8% in the FAME yield. The present work shows that the use of monolithic catalysts in the transesterification of vegetable oils is a viable alternative. KeywordsBiodiesel production-Monolithic catalyst-Transesterification
    Topics in Catalysis 01/2010; 53(11):755-762. · 2.61 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from