Possible methods for biodiesel production

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (Impact Factor: 5.51). 08/2007; 11:1300-1311. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2005.08.006

ABSTRACT Biodiesel production is a very modern and technological area for researchers due to the relevance that it is winning everyday because of the increase in the petroleum price and the environmental advantages. In this work it is made a review of the alternative technological methods that could be used to produce this fuel. Different studies have been carried out using different oils as raw material, different alcohol (methanol, ethanol, buthanol) as well as different catalysts, homogeneous ones such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and supercritical fluids, and heterogeneous ones such as lipases. In this work advantages and disadvantages of technologies are listed and for all of them a kinetics model is introduced.

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    ABSTRACT: This article reviews the partial hydrogenation of renewable polyunsaturated methyl esters of linseed, sunflower, Cynara cardunculus and soybean oils into their monounsaturated counterparts which is upgraded biodiesel fuel employing highly active and selective water-soluble rhodium, ruthenium and palladium TPPTS complexes and by water-dispersible palladium(0) nanoparticles stabilized by water-soluble nitrogen-containing ligands which possess even higher activities than those exhibited by Pd/TPPTS benchmark catalysts in aqueous/organic two-phase systems. Furthermore, this article presents a novel study on the full hydrogenation of polyunsaturated methyl esters of sunflower and palm kernel oils to obtain up to 99.0 mol% methyl stearate (MS) using water-soluble Rh- and Ru-TPPTS catalytic complexes under mild reaction conditions in aqueous/organic two-phase systems. The full hydrogenation reaction of polyunsaturated FAMEs into MS is an interesting catalytic reaction because MS is an industrial feedstock for the manufacture of specialties such as surfactants, emulsifiers, etc., and could also act as a model reaction for studying the full hydrogenation of edible oils to saturated fats to be further subjected to interesterification reactions with liquid edible vegetable oils to yield foodstuffs with zero amounts of trans-fats especially after publication of results of very recent investigations which have questioned whether there really are direct associations between saturated fat consumption and a higher cardiovascular disease risk.
    Catalysis Today 06/2015; 247. DOI:10.1016/j.cattod.2014.08.021 · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper investigate the scope of utilizing biodiesel with high bland (B20 & B40) developed from the Methyle alcohol from pongamia oils as an alternative diesel fuel. The major problem of using neat pongamia oil as a fuel in a compression ignition engine arises due to its very high viscosity. Transesterification with alcohols reduces the viscosity of the oil and other properties have been evaluated to be comparable with those of diesel. In the present project work, an experimental investigation is carried out on performance and emission characteristics of preheated higher blends of pongamia biodiesel with diesel. The higher blends of fuel is preheated at 60, 75, 90 and 110˚C temperature using waste exhaust gas heat in a shell and tube heat exchanger. Transesterification process is used to produce biodiesel required for the project from raw pongamia oil. Experiments were done using B20 and B40 biodiesel blends at different preheating temperature and for different loading. A significant improvement in performance and emission characteristics of preheated B40 blend was obtained. B40 blend preheated to 110˚C showed maximum 8.72% and 8.97% increase in brake thermal efficiency over diesel and B20 blend respectively at 75% load. Also the highest reduction in UBHC emission and smoke opacity values are obtained as 79.41% and 80.6% respectively over diesel and 78.12% and 73.54% respectively over B20 blend for B40 blend preheated to 110˚C at 75% load. Thus preheating of higher blends of diesel and biodiesel at higher temperature improves the viscosity and other properties sharply and improves the performance and emission.

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