Possible methods for biodiesel production

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (Impact Factor: 5.51). 08/2007; 11:1300-1311. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2005.08.006

ABSTRACT Biodiesel production is a very modern and technological area for researchers due to the relevance that it is winning everyday because of the increase in the petroleum price and the environmental advantages. In this work it is made a review of the alternative technological methods that could be used to produce this fuel. Different studies have been carried out using different oils as raw material, different alcohol (methanol, ethanol, buthanol) as well as different catalysts, homogeneous ones such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and supercritical fluids, and heterogeneous ones such as lipases. In this work advantages and disadvantages of technologies are listed and for all of them a kinetics model is introduced.

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    ABSTRACT: In this work, the study of market and economic variables for a jojoba oil biorefinery is conducted. The raw materials used in this process were jojoba oil, methanol, a green catalyst derived from the fish industry, hexane, and diethylether. The products obtained in this process are jojobyl alcohols, which have pharmaceutical applications, and the fatty acid metyl esters (FAME) which are used to generate energy in the plant. The economic sensitivity analysis was performed for the internal rate of return (IRR) and payback time when the prices of jojobyl alcohols, jojoba oil, management and treatment of the diethylether:hexane stream, and methanol vary in fixed ranges. In addition, the influences of the product failure, tax percentage, advertisement and selling expenses, and the royalties over the economy of the process were also studied. The variables which have the most impact on the economy of the process were the jojobyl alcohol and jojoba oil price; small modifications in these variables result in relevant changes in the economy of the biorefinery. However, the price of the methanol is not significant for the profitability of the plant because 85% of the excess alcohol used in the transesterification step is recycled. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
    Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining 09/2014; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biodiesel has been receiving significant attention as a renewable and nonpolluting fuel. In this study, oleic acid and bioalcohols (ethanol and butanol) were used as substrates for biodiesel production. The reactions were performed in a solvent-free system using immobilized lipase (Novozym 435) as a biocatalyst in batch esterification processes. The optimal conditions were 45 o C, oleic acid to alcohol molar ratio of 1:2, Novozym 435 loading at 5% based on oleic acid weight and 250 rpm, in which the free fatty acid (FFA) conversion at 91.0% was obtained after 8 h of the reaction. Introduction Currently, energy problem is one of the most important issues and continually affects all human beings directly. In Thailand, fossil fuel resources such as oil, gas, and coal are limited. Biodiesel is a part of research for the evolution of renewable energy sources in Thailand. It is an environmentally compatible product and could be produced from vegetable oils, free fatty acids or animal fat [1, 2] with various alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol [3]. The biodiesel synthesis is classified as chemical or enzymatic production. The chemical processes usually use alkaline (NaOH or KOH) or acid (H 2 SO 4) [4] as a catalyst. For the enzymatic process, lipase can be productively used as a biocatalyst for both transesterification and esterification. Still, the high cost of enzyme is a bottleneck in industrialization. Immobilized enzyme has many industrial and economical advantages such as ease of recovery, reusability, enhanced enzyme stability, and high opportunity for continuous operation [5]. This research focused on the investigation of optimal operating conditions for biodiesel production in batch esterification processes using oleic acid and bioalcohols (ethanol and butanol) as substrates and using immobilized lipase (Novozym 435) as a biocatalyst. Materials and methods Materials and chemicals Novozym 435 (Lipase B from C. antractica, EC, a nonspecific lipase immobilized on macroporous acrylic resin) was purchased from S.M. Chemical suppliers Co., Ltd. All chemicals used in this work were analytical grade and were purchased from local suppliers in Thailand. Enzymatic esterification reaction The reactions containing of 40 g of oleic acid with alcohol varied in a molar ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4 were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks. The amount of Novozym 435 was varied from 2.5% to 10% (w/w of oleic acid). The mixtures were incubated at 35-60°C in a shaking incubator (Innova 4000, New Brunswick Scientific Co., Inc., Germany) under a normally constant shaking of 250 rpm. During 0-24 h, samples of 6 mL were collected for the analysis of biodiesel conversion.
    Advanced Materials Research 08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Due to increase demand of energy, increasing price of petroleum fuels, depletion of petroleum fuels, and environmental pollution by these fuel emissions, it is very necessary to find the alternative fuels. This work focused on use of hybrid blends of Karanja and Cottonseed oil Biodiesels. In this work 20% and 25% blends are used and the performance and emission tests were conducted on single cylinder, 4-stroke, water cooled CI engine by running the engine at a speed of 1500rpm, at a compression ratio of 16.5:1 and at an injection pressure of 205bar and performance parameters like BP, BSFC, BTE and the emissions like CO, HC and NOx are compared. It was found that the blends gave comparatively good results in respect of performance and emissions.
    IJTRA. 10/2014; 5:71-74.

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