Possible methods for biodiesel production

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (Impact Factor: 5.51). 08/2007; 11:1300-1311. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2005.08.006

ABSTRACT Biodiesel production is a very modern and technological area for researchers due to the relevance that it is winning everyday because of the increase in the petroleum price and the environmental advantages. In this work it is made a review of the alternative technological methods that could be used to produce this fuel. Different studies have been carried out using different oils as raw material, different alcohol (methanol, ethanol, buthanol) as well as different catalysts, homogeneous ones such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and supercritical fluids, and heterogeneous ones such as lipases. In this work advantages and disadvantages of technologies are listed and for all of them a kinetics model is introduced.

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    ABSTRACT: Flower-like CaO has been fabricated by a simple hydrothermal approach. Detailed structural characterization revealed that, the flower-like products were constructed by conical-like crystals, with the angle between adjacent lateral edges being 30° or 25°. When flower-like CaO was used as the solid base catalyst to synthesize biodiesel, a high biodiesel yield of 95.5% was achieved. Preferred nucleation and growth of CaO nuclei along [2 2 2] and [4 0 0] growth directions led to conical-like CaO, which coalesced into flower-like architectures by their further contacting and “welding” behavior. Flower-like CaO architectures predominantly exposed active O2− on (2 2 2) and (4 0 0) favorable planes of CaO, resulting in obvious enhancement of catalytic activity and high yield of biodiesel.
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    ABSTRACT: Considerable attention has been given to bio-diesel as a surrogate to fossil fuel reserves and associated environmental problems of burning them. However, the high costs of bio-diesel production remain the main problem in making it competitive. Bio-diesel and glycerol are obtained by reacting virgin vegetable oil or animal fat with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst or non-catalyst via transesterification. A conceptual process of heterogeneous SnO-catalyzed transesterification is designed based on the condition of 333K and atmospheric pressure, using methanol and waste oil with a molar ratio of 10:1 as raw materials. In this paper, the economic feasibility analysis based on static payback time, dynamic investment payback period, Financial Net Present Value and Return on Investment, is elaborated for 10kton/y capacity transesterification units. Comprehensive evaluation model on four typical methods are done, taking the following factors into consideration including natural resource utilization, impact on environment, economic feasibility and sustainable development of society. As a result, Heterogeneous acid-catalyzed transesterification seems more transcendent.
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