# Modular and recursive kinematics and dynamics for parallel manipulators

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Venkat Krovi, Jul 29, 2015 Available from:-
##### Article: Dynamics analysis of a 3-RRP spherical parallel manipulator using the natural orthogonal complement

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**ABSTRACT:**In the present research, application of the Natural Orthogonal Complement (NOC) for the dynamic analysis of a spherical parallel manipulator, referred to as SST, is presented. Both inverse and direct dynamics are considered. The NOC and the SST fully parallel robot are explained. To drive the NOC for the SST manipulator, constraints between joint variables are written using the transformation matrices obtained from three different branches of the robot. The Newton–Euler formulation is used to model the dynamics of each individual body, including moving platform and legs of the manipulator. D’Alembert’s principle is applied and Newton–Euler dynamical equations free from non-working generalized constraint forces are obtained. Finally two examples, one for direct and one for inverse dynamics are presented. The correctness and accuracy of the obtained solution are verified by comparing with the solution of the virtual work method as well as commercial multi-body dynamics software.Multibody System Dynamics 04/2012; 29(4). DOI:10.1007/s11044-012-9321-z · 1.75 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**A rotationless formulation of multibody dynamics is presented, which is especially beneficial to the design of energy-momentum conserving integration schemes. The proposed approach facilitates the stable numerical integration of the differential algebraic equations governing the motion of both open-loop and closed-loop multibody systems. A coordinate augmentation technique for the incorporation of rotational degrees of freedom and associated torques is newly proposed. Subsequent to the discretization, size-reductions are performed to lower the computational costs and improve the numerical conditioning. In this connection, a new approach to the systematic design of discrete null space matrices for closed-loop systems is presented. Two numerical examples are given to evaluate the numerical properties of the proposed algorithms.Multibody System Dynamics 03/2007; 17(4):243-289. DOI:10.1007/s11044-007-9043-9 · 1.75 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Traditionally, the dynamic model, i.e., the equations of motion, of a robotic system is derived from Euler–Lagrange (EL) or Newton–Euler (NE) equations. The EL equations begin with a set of generally independent generalized coordinates, whereas the NE equations are based on the Cartesian coordinates. The NE equations consider various forces and moments on the free body diagram of each link of the robotic system at hand, and, hence, require the calculation of the constrained forces and moments that eventually do not participate in the motion of the coupled system. Hence, the principle of elimination of constraint forces has been proposed in the literature. One such methodology is based on the Decoupled Natural Orthogonal Complement (DeNOC) matrices, reported elsewhere. It is shown in this paper that one can also begin with the EL equations of motion based on the kinetic and potential energies of the system, and use the DeNOC matrices to obtain the independent equations of motion. The advantage of the proposed approach is that a computationally more efficient forward dynamics algorithm for the serial robots having slender rods is obtained, which is numerically stable. The typical six-degree-of-freedom PUMA robot is considered here to illustrate the advantages of the proposed algorithm.Multibody System Dynamics 03/2007; 17(4):291-319. DOI:10.1007/s11044-007-9044-8 · 1.75 Impact Factor