Article

Efectos de la Exención Tributaria a las Ganancias de Capital en el Precio de las Acciones en Chile

01/2009;

ABSTRACT La Reforma al Mercado de Capitales de 2001 en Chile (MK I), estableció la exención del impuesto a la renta para las ganancias de capital provenientes de la enajenación de acciones con presencia bursátil. Los objetivos de la reforma eran aumentar la participación, la profundidad y la liquidez en el mercado local de acciones. Sin embargo, no es evidente cuál es el efecto que tiene una rebaja tributaria en el precio de las acciones ya que hay dos efectos que actúan en sentido contrario. Por un lado, hay un efecto de capitalización que lleva a un aumento en los precios. Por otro lado, hay un efecto lock-in que lleva a una reducción en los precios. Determinar cuál efecto domina es, por lo tanto, una pregunta que debe responderse empíricamente. Este trabajo contribuye a responder esa pregunta, determinando empíricamente los efectos que tuvo la exención tributaria introducida en 2001 en el precio de las acciones en Chile. Utilizando un estimador de diferencias en diferencias, los resultados muestran un impacto anticipado promedio de alrededor de -14% en el precio de las acciones que se cotizan en la Bolsa de Santiago frente a la futura exención tributaria. La elasticidad del precio respecto a la tasa de impuesto, entre 0.006 y 0.01, es mucho menor a la estimada en la literatura económica para otros países a partir de reformas similares, donde la elasticidad fluctúa entre 0.20 y 0.27. Sin embargo, es de magnitud similar a la elasticidad estimada para períodos de tiempo donde el efecto lock-in domina.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
130 Views
  • American Economic Review 02/1981; 71(4):801-801. · 2.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We empirically document that stock prices moved inversely with dividend yields during the May, 1997 week, when the White House and Congress agreed on a budget accord that included a reduction in the capital gains tax rate. The share prices of firms not currently paying dividends increased approximately 6 percentage points more over a five-day window than the share prices of other firms. Among firms paying dividends, the change in share prices was decreasing in dividend yields. The results are consistent with at least two related explanations. First, to the extent a stock's returns are expected to be taxed as capital gains, a reduction in the expected capital gains tax rate enhances the attractiveness of the investment to investors. Second, to the extent a firm's stock is held by shareholders subject to the capital gains tax, a reduction in the expected capital gains tax rate increases its market value. The findings present evidence consistent with neither a sell-off of appreciated securities following the rate reduction nor a reduction in the compensation for capital gains taxes that selling shareholders demand from buyers. The upward price pressure around the accord dominated any downward price pressure imposed by these factors.
    Journal of Public Economics 02/2000; 76(1):69-85. · 1.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Individual investors have an incentive to defer selling appreciated stock until it qualifies for tax-favored, long-term capital gains treatment. Shackelford and Verrecchia [2002] show that these incentives can affect equity trading around public disclosures. This article provides some empirical support for their theory with evidence of price increases and equity constrictions around announcements of quarterly earnings and additions to the S&P 500 index. We find share returns rise and trading volume falls with the incremental taxes saved by deferring the sale of appreciated property. The price increases, however, are temporary, reversing in subsequent trading days. The results are consistent with buyers believing the compensation to sell before long-term qualification (through higher prices) is less costly than holding an inappropriately weighted portfolio. This finding-that personal capital gains taxes affect equity trading-adds to a growing literature that challenges longstanding assumptions that firm value is independent of shareholders and their taxes. Copyright University of Chicago on behalf of the Institute of Professional Accounting, 2003.
    Journal of Accounting Research 02/2003; 41(4):611-651. · 2.38 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
144 Downloads
Available from
May 29, 2014