Article

Economía forestal en Bolivia

ABSTRACT In this chapter we introduce a comprehensive concept of resource value. Considering direct use value, indirect use value, and non-use value we attempt to encompass the total value of forest resources. Taking Bolivia as an example we present a review of forest and environmental economic literature providing an overview of the state-of-the-art within this research field in an Andes country. The larges contribution has been made in the direct use values category. Indirect use and non-use values studies are scarce. Profitability studies of timber production mainly date back to the debates over the implementation of the 1996 forest law. Since then conditions have changed and new legal bases of collective and communal forestry now accompany the well-known concession forestry model. The impact on the local and national economy of the prevalent illegal logging practices has evaded scientific enquiry. The economic role of non-timber products is scarcely documented as are the environmental economy aspects of the Bolivian forest resource. An enhanced effort in addressing these issues should be based on a close inter-disciplinary collaboration between natural and social science aiming at providing holistic and comprehensive answers useful for enterprise and policy decision-makers. The review concludes that scientific research on the economic value of forest resources is highly needed. Resumen En este capítulo incorporamos un concepto extenso del valor de recursos, considerando los valores de uso directo, indirecto y de no uso intentamos abarcar el valor total de los recursos forestales. Presentamos una reseña bibliográfica sobre el bosque y de la economía ambiental de Bolivia como un ejemplo, generando un repaso sobre el estado de arte de este campo de investigación en un país andino. La mayor contribución ha sido realizada en la categoría de uso directo, mientras que los estudios son muy escasos en el uso indirecto y de no uso. Los estudios sobre el beneficio de la producción de madera mayormente se remontan al debate sobre la implementación de la Ley General Forestal en 1996. A partir de ésta, las condiciones han cambiado y nuevas bases legales de forestería colectiva y comunitaria acompañan al conocido modelo de las concesiones forestales. El impacto en la economía local y nacional de prácticas prevalentes ilegales madereras ha evadido la investigación científica. El rol económico de los productos no maderables está escasamente documentado, como son los aspectos económico-ambientales del recurso forestal de Bolivia. Se debería establecer una estrecha colaboración interdisciplinaria entre las ciencias naturales y sociales para proveer útiles respuestas holísticas y extensas a empresarios y decisores políticos. Esta reseña concluye que la investigación sobre valor económico de los recursos del bosque es muy necesaria. Palabras clave: Valores de uso, Investigaciones económicas, Recursos forestales, Bolivia.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
144 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Carbon sequestration in community forests presents a major challenge for the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) programme. This article uses a comparative analysis of the agricultural and forestry practices of indigenous peoples and settlers in the Bolivian Amazon to show how community-level institutions regulate the trade-offs between community livelihoods, forest species diversity, and carbon sequestration. The authors argue that REDD+ implementation in such areas runs the risk of: 1) reinforcing economic inequalities based on previous and potential land use impacts on ecosystems (baseline), depending on the socio-cultural groups targeted; 2) increasing pressure on land used for food production, possibly reducing food security and redirecting labour towards scarce off-farm income opportunities; 3) increasing dependence on external funding and carbon market fluctuations instead of local production strategies; and 4) further incentivising the privatization and commodification of land to avoid transaction costs associated with collective property rights. The article also advises against taking a strictly economic, market-based approach to carbon sequestration, arguing that such an approach could endanger fragile socio-ecological systems. REDD+ schemes should directly support existing efforts towards forest sustainability rather than simply compensating local land users for avoiding deforestation and forest degradation.
    Development and Change 01/2014; 45(1). · 1.41 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Firewood is the basic fuel source in rural Bolivia. A study was conducted in an Andean village of subsistence farmers to investigate human impact on wild firewood species. A total of 114 different fuel species was inventoried during fieldtrips and transect sampling. Specific data on abundance and growth height of wild firewood species were collected in thirty-six transects of 50 ×2 m(2). Information on fuel uses of plants was obtained from 13 local Quechua key participants. To appraise the impact of fuel harvest, the extraction impact value (EIV) index was developed. This index takes into account local participants' appreciation of (1) decreasing plant abundance; (2) regeneration capacity of plants; (3) impact of root harvesting; and (4) quality of firewood. Results suggest that several (sub-)woody plant species are negatively affected by firewood harvesting. We found that anthropogenic pressure, expressed as EIV, covaried with density of firewood species, which could entail higher human pressure on more abundant and/or more accessible species. The apparent negative impact of anthropogenic pressure on populations of wild fuel species is corroborated by our finding that, in addition to altitude, several anthropogenic variables (i.e. site accessibility, cultivation of exotics and burning practices) explain part of the variation in height of firewood species in the surroundings of Apillapampa.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 07/2011; 178(1-4):333-47. · 1.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) encourages economic support for reducing deforestation and conserving or increasing existing forest carbon stocks. The way in which incentives are structured affects trade-offs between local livelihoods, carbon emission reduction, and the cost-effectiveness of a REDD + programme. Looking at first-hand empirical data from 208 farming households in the Bolivian Amazon from a household economy perspective, our study explores two policy options: 1) compensated reduction of emissions fromold-growth forest clearing for agriculture, and 2) direct payments for labour input into sustainable forest management combined with a commitment not to clear old-growth forest. Our results indicate that direct payments for sustainable forest management – an approach that focuses on valuing farmers' labour input – can be more cost-effective than compensated reduction and in some cases is the most appropriate choice for achieving improved household incomes, permanence of changes, avoidance of leakages, and community-based institutional enforcement for sustainable forest management.
    Ecological Economics 01/2013; 93:94-103. · 2.86 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
860 Downloads
Available from
Jun 3, 2014