Calcium interaction with salinity-induced effects on growth and metabolism of soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivars

Journal of Environmental Biology (Impact Factor: 0.68). 01/2010; 31:795-801.

ABSTRACT In the present work, hydroponic culture of JS-335 and Bragg cultivars of soybean (Glycine max) were raised to analyze changes in growth, reactive oxygen metabolism in terms of H 2 O 2 content, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), free radical quenching systems (non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants) and ion accumulation in different plant parts under NaCl and CaCl 2 stress. Fifteen-day-old seedlings were treated with solutions of 25 mM (T 1), 50 mM (T 2) and 100 mM (T 3) NaCl alone and in combination of 10 mM CaCl 2 i.e., 25 mM + 10 mM (T 4), 50 mM + 10 mM (T 5) and 100 mM + 10 mM (T 6). Observations recorded at 30 days after sowing displayed significant decreases in plant biomass, leaf water potential, leaf area, chlorophyll content and the contents of glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (AsC) on application of NaCl alone. However, H 2 O 2 content and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in leaves were enhanced, consequently invoking the activities of SOD, APX, GR and CAT. Application of NaCl + CaCl 2 alleviated adverse effects of NaCl stress. The Na + and Cl -contents in different plant parts increased with NaCl as well as with NaCl + CaCl 2 treatments. The maximum accumulation occurred in roots, followed by the stem and the leaves. The K + and Ca 2+ contents decreased under NaCl stress; but NaCl + CaCl 2 treatment reduced the extent of decrease caused by NaCl. Thus, calcium ameliorated the deleterious effects of NaCl stress and stimulated plant metabolism and growth. Introduction Abiotic stresses pose a serious threat to agriculture and the natural status of the environment. Salinity affects plant growth and its deleterious effects are attributed to a reduced osmotic potential of the growing medium, specific ion toxicity and nutrient deficiency (Luo et al., 2005; Bhattacharjee, 2008). Low osmotic potential of saline solutions prevents water uptake by plants, resulting in a "physiological drought". Alterations in physiological processes due to osmotic stress cause reduction in growth. Plant dry weights may be drastically reduced (Kim et al., 2009; Ozdener and Kuttbay, 2008). Salinity can cause hyperionic and hyperosmotic effects on plants, leading to membrane disorganization and metabolic toxicity, including the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as the superoxide anion (O 2 –), H 2 O 2 and the hydroxyl radicals, particularly in chloroplasts and mitochondria (Mittler, 2002). Generation of ROS causes rapid cell damage by triggering a chain of reactions. To protect themselves from the harmful effects of oxidative stress, plants develop ROS-scavenging mechanism that involves detoxification processes carried out by an integrated system of the non-enzymatic reduced molecules, like ascorbate and glutathione, and the enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) (Jaleel et al., 2007). Studies of antioxidant mechanisms may provide clues to enhance salt tolerance in plants.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Both heat and chilling caused reduction in membrane protein thiol level and increased accumulation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in 72 hr old germinating tissues (indicators of oxidative stress) and reduced germination and early growth performances. Calcium chelator EGTA [Ethylene glycol-bis (2-aminoethylether)-N, N,N',N, tetra acetic acid] calcium channel blocker LaCI3 (Lanthanum chloride) and calmodulin inhibitor TFP (trifluroperazine) aggravated these effects of heat and chilling and added calcium reversed them. Imposition of heat and chilling stress during early germination also causes accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) like 02(-) and H2O2. Calcium treatment significantly reduced the accumulation of both the toxic ROS, while EGTA, LaCl3 and TFP treatment enhanced the accumulation. Activities of antioxidative enzymes catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) and glutathione reductase (GR) and total thiol content decreased significantly under both heat and chilling stress in germinating Amaranthus seedlings. Seedlings raised with Ca2+ treatment under heat and chilling stress exhibit higher activities of CAT7 GR and APOX and total thiol level than the untreated plants. EGTA, LaCl3 and TFP treatment, on the other hand significantly reduce the activities of all anti-oxidative enzymes and total thiol level. The work clearly supports the view that Ca2+-signalling pathway plays significant role in limiting heat and chilling induced oxidative stress by upregulating antioxidative defense during recovery phase of post-germination event in Amaranthus lividus.
    Journal of Environmental Biology 07/2009; 30(4):557-62. · 0.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two genotypes (Pusa 9531 and PS 16) of moongbean [Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek], differing in photosynthetic capacity were grown for 30 days in earthen pots at three field capacities (100, 75 and 50%), and the possible role of biochemical alterations and antioxidant metabolism in conferring photosynthetic capacity was determined by measuring Rubisco activity, photosynthetic traits, lipid peroxidation and assaying activities of the central components of antioxidant defence system. Growth, Rubisco activity, photosynthetic traits and soluble protein content decreased significantly with decreasing field capacity (FC) from 100 to 50%. Levels of TBARS, H2O2, electrolyte leakage and proline contents increased with decreasing FC. Activities of SOD and GR increased in both genotypes with decreasing FC; the CAT and APX activities over-expressed only at mild (75%) FC but not at severe (50%) FC. There were found genotype-dependent alterations in growth, photosynthetic traits, Rubisco activity and antioxidant metabolism when exposed to water deficit. Decline in efficiency of the H2O2-decomposing system at severe drought was responsible for oxidative damage occurring in both the genotypes. The differential responses of antioxidative enzymes in the two genotypes were the result of their ability to protect photosynthetic apparatus and alleviate water deficit stress.
    Journal of Plant Interactions 01/2008; 3:127-136. · 0.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Due to widespread industrial use, chromium (Cr) is considered a hazardous environmental pollutant. It is known to inhibit plant growth and development. The present study provides the evidence of the phytotoxicity of this metal on the pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Azad) plants. The plants of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were grown in refined sand under different concentrations i.e. 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mM of Cr (VI) in order to study the effect on growth and yield, photosynthetic pigments, relative water content, non-reducing sugar and protein with activity of certain enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, starch phosphorylase and ribonuclease. The analysis of the results showed that photosynthetic pigments (68.68%), relative water contents (62.77%), non-reducing sugar (66.66%) and protein (81.57%) were decrease along with reduction in plant height (52.69%) and leaf area (50.81%) of the pea plants. However, in response to various concentration of Cr exposed plants showed significant induction of reducing and total sugars with enzymes like catalase, starch phosphorylase and ribonuclease. The translocation of Cr in various part of pea plant have been found in order of root> stem> leaves>seeds which ranged between 34.8 to 217.3 mg g(-1) d.wt. (dry weight) in roots, 6.5 to 173.13 mg g(-1) d.wt. in shoot, 4.2 to 74.43 mg g(-1) d.wt. in leaves and 0.94 to 8.64 mg g(-1) d.wt. in seeds, that is also reflected by the transfer factor of Cr from refined sand to tested species.
    Journal of Environmental Biology 05/2009; 30(3):389-94. · 0.68 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 27, 2014