Fossil Old World monkeys (Primates, Cercopithecidae) from the Pliocene of Dorkovo, Bulgaria

Bulgaria. Geodiversitas 01/2005; 27:159-166.

ABSTRACT Two colobine species occur at the early Pliocene (MN 14) locality of Dorkovo: Dolichopithecus ruscinensis Depéret, 1889 and Mesopithecus mons-pessulanus (Gervais, 1849). Such an association is known from at least three other Ruscinian or earliest Villafranchian sites, and at two other localities a cercopithecine taxon joins the two colobines. The large colobine from the Kuchurgan localities of Ukraine has previously been considered either a dis-tinct genus or a separate species of Dolichopithecus, but it is here syno-mymized with D . ruscinensis; an isolated Kuchurgan molar previously published as a macaque is here tentatively re-identified as a colobine, perhaps M . monspessulanus. No temporal patterning has been observed either for asso-ciations among these Pliocene genera or of size change within the two Dorkovo taxa.

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    73rd Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Los Angeles, California, USA; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Cercopithecid fossil remains from the post-evaporitic Messinian (5.40-5.33 Ma, MN13, latest Turolian, latest Miocene) locality of Moncucco Torinese (Tertiary Piedmont Basin, NW Italy) are described. A talus is assigned to the fossil colobine Mesopithecus pentelicus, while a proximal fragment of ulna and a male lower canine are attributed to cf. Me.pentelicus. An isolated I(2) and M3 are assigned to the papionin cf. Macaca sp., and two cercopithecid phalanges are left unassigned even to the subfamily level. The record of Mesopithecus at Moncucco Torinese agrees well with the previously-known range of this species in Italy and elsewhere in Europe, whereas that of cf. Macaca constitutes only the second occurrence of macaques in the Miocene of Eurasia. Although the co-occurrence of these two genera in a single locality had been previously reported in the Pliocene, this is the first instance in which macaques are associated with the Late Miocene M. pentelicus instead of Mesopithecus monspessulanus. The record of cf. Macaca and Mesopithecus-and especially the latter's talar morphology, similar to that of extant arboreal colobines-fits well with paleoenvironmental reconstructions of Moncucco Torinese based on the associated fauna, which indicate a humid and densely-forested environment, probably with more open and drier habitats nearby. From a paleobiogeographic viewpoint, the record of Macaca at Moncucco Torinese, together with the previously reported occurrence at Almenara-Casablanca M (Spain), supports the contention that macaques dispersed from Africa into Europe during the latest Miocene (ca. 5.9-5.3 Ma) at the same time as the sea level drop associated with the Messinian Salinity Crisis.
    Journal of Human Evolution 12/2013; · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the original description of Dolichopithecus (Kanagawapithecus) leptopostorbitalis, Iwamoto, Hasegawa and Koizumi, 2005, a moderately large-sized colobine monkey from the Late Pliocene of central Japan, affinities to the European Dolichopithecus rather than to the Transbaikalian Parapresbytis were noted based on the similarities in cranial morphology. Computed tomography scans confirm the presence of the maxillary sinus in the holotype, whereas it is probably absent in specimens of the European Dolichopithecus ruscinensis, the type species of this genus. This feature is either present or absent homogeneously in any given genus of living anthropoids. Its presence or absence is unknown in Parapresbytis, but the distinct morphology of the maxillary incisors in this taxon suggests that this form had different feeding habits from the Japanese colobines. These findings suggest that the Japanese colobine should be referred to henceforth as Kanagawapithecus leptopostorbitalis. Kanagawapithecus shares many important facial and dental features with Dolichopithecus rather than with Parapresbytis, but this association depends largely on the limited availability of comparable materials for the latter. Among colobines, the presence of the maxillary sinus is recorded only in Libypithecus and Cercopithecoides. The maxillary sinus is absent in all modern Asian colobines, implying that Kanagawapithecus is an isolated form without any relationship to living forms. Nevertheless, such phylogenetic interpretations are largely dependent on the restricted fossil evidence from the Pliocene and Pleistocene of eastern Eurasia and will be reexamined when new findings are made.
    Journal of Human Evolution 03/2012; 62(4):548-61. · 4.09 Impact Factor

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