Practical methods for modelling weak VARMA processes: identification, estimation and specification with a macroeconomic application

North Carolina State University; Department of Economics, McGill University, H3A 2T7, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Department of Economics, North Carolina State University, 27695-8110, Raleigh, NC, USA

ABSTRACT program on Mathematics of Information Technology and Complex Systems (MITACS)], the Canada Council for the Arts (Killam Fellowship), the CIREQ, the CIRANO, and the Fonds FCAR (Government of Québec). William Dow Professor of Economics, McGill University, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en analyse des organisations (CIRANO), and Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative (CIREQ). Mailing address: ABSTRACT In this paper, we develop practical methods for modelling weak VARMA processes. In a first part, we propose new identified VARMA representations, the diagonal MA equation form and the final MA equation form, where the MA operator is diagonal and scalar respectively. Both of these representations have the important feature that they constitute relatively simple modifications of a VAR model (in contrast with the echelon representation). In a second part, we study the problem of estimating VARMA models by relatively simple methods which only require linear regressions. We consider a generalization of the regression-based estimation method proposed by Hannan and Rissanen (1982). The asymptotic properties of the estimator are derived under weak hypotheses on the innovations (uncorrelated and strong mixing) so as to broaden the class of models to which it can be applied. In a third part, we present a modified information criterion which gives consistent estimates of the orders under the proposed representations. To demonstrate the importance of using VARMA models to study multivariate time series we compare the impulse-response functions and the out-of-sample forecasts generated by VARMA and VAR models.

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    ABSTRACT: The concept of causality introduced by Wiener [Wiener, N., 1956. The theory of prediction, In: E.F. Beckenback, ed., The Theory of Prediction, McGraw-Hill, New York (Chapter 8)] and Granger [Granger, C. W.J., 1969. Investigating causal relations by econometric models and cross-spectral methods, Econometrica 37, 424–459] is defined in terms of predictability one period ahead. This concept can be generalized by considering causality at any given horizon h as well as tests for the corresponding non-causality [Dufour, J.-M., Renault, E., 1998. Short-run and long-run causality in time series: Theory. Econometrica 66, 1099–1125; Dufour, J.-M., Pelletier, D., Renault, É., 2006. Short run and long run causality in time series: Inference, Journal of Econometrics 132 (2), 337–362]. Instead of tests for non-causality at a given horizon, we study the problem of measuring causality between two vector processes. Existing causality measures have been defined only for the horizon 1, and they fail to capture indirect causality. We propose generalizations to any horizon h of the measures introduced by Geweke [Geweke, J., 1982. Measurement of linear dependence and feedback between multiple time series. Journal of the American Statistical Association 77, 304–313]. Nonparametric and parametric measures of unidirectional causality and instantaneous effects are considered. On noting that the causality measures typically involve complex functions of model parameters in VAR and VARMA models, we propose a simple simulation-based method to evaluate these measures for any VARMA model. We also describe asymptotically valid nonparametric confidence intervals, based on a bootstrap technique. Finally, the proposed measures are applied to study causality relations at different horizons between macroeconomic, monetary and financial variables in the US.
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    ABSTRACT: This article considers the problem of order selection of the vector autoregressive moving‐average (VARMA) models under the assumption that the errors are uncorrelated but not necessarily independent. These models are called weak VARMA by opposition to the standard VARMA models, also called strong VARMA models, in which the error terms are supposed to be i.i.d. We relax the standard independence assumption to extend the range of application of the VARMA models, allowing us to treat linear representations of general nonlinear processes. We propose a modified version of the Akaike information criterion for identifying the orders of weak VARMA models.
    Journal of Time Series Analysis 01/2012; · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study two linear estimators for stationary invertible VARMA models in echelon form – to achieve identification (model parameter unicity) – with known Kronecker indices. Such linear estimators are much simpler to compute than Gaussian maximum-likelihood estimators often proposed for such models, which require highly nonlinear optimization. The first estimator is an improved two-step estimator which can be interpreted as a generalized-least-squares extension of the two-step least-squares estimator studied in Dufour and Jouini (2005). The setup considered is also more general and allows for the presence of drift parameters. The second estimator is a new relatively simple three-step linear estimator which is asymptotically equivalent to ML, hence asymptotically efficient, when the innovations of the process are Gaussian. The latter is based on using modified approximate residuals which better take into account the truncation error associated with the approximate long autoregression used in the first step of the method. We show that both estimators are consistent and asymptotically normal under the assumption that the innovations are a strong white noise, possibly non-Gaussian. Explicit formulae for the asymptotic covariance matrices are provided. The proposed estimators are computationally simpler than earlier "efficient" estimators, and the distributional theory we supply does not rely on a Gaussian assumption, in contrast with Gaussian maximum likelihood or the estimators considered by Hannan and Kavalieris (1984b) and Reinsel, Basu and Yap (1992). We present simulation evidence which indicates that the proposed three-step estimator typically performs better in finite samples than the alternative multi-step linear estimators suggested by Hannan and Kavalieris (1984b), Reinsel et al. (1992), and Poskitt and Salau (1995).

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May 22, 2014