“Farmers as Entrepreneurs: The Case of Farm-Based Tourism

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business 06/2008; 6(3). DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2008.019130


Recent trends indicate that more farmers will diversify their activities, leading to 'pluriactivity'. Farmers that develop their farming enterprise by building tourism businesses based upon the resources of the farm can be seen as farm entrepreneurs who are entering the service sector. Based on a representative statistical data set from a survey conducted in 2006, where 1677 farmers responded to a broad set of questions, this paper identifies the characteristics of farm-based tourism and farmers as tourism entrepreneurs. Furthermore, this paper explores the impact of the additional activities associated with farm-based tourism for both the farm economy and the work situation for the farm household. The data set presents a unique opportunity to combine sociocultural data with data on alternative farm economic activities in the form of tourism. Trondheim. Her research themes focus on work, life quality, images of the rural life and rural tourism. She has published in international journals and books in the area of gender issues in agriculture and rural communities.

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Available from: Marit S. Haugen, Oct 04, 2015
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    • "Selon Dufour et Lanciano (2012), ces nouvelles formes d'échange modifient en profondeur les pratiques agricoles des exploitants. En particulier, alors que les hommes considèrent l'artisanat alimentaire et la vente directe comme étrangers à leur profession (Macken-Walsh, 2011), les femmes sont en moyenne plus motivées par ces pratiques (Haugen and Vik, 2008). En outre, Camou et Quelin (2010) constatent que les projets portés dans des installations hors cadre familial, souvent par des néoagriculteurs , sont plus fréquemment atypiques. "
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    ABSTRACT: Le présent travail analyse les circuits courts agroalimentaires à travers le cadre de l’économie de la proximité. Il s’appuie sur les données 2010 du Recensement Agricole ainsi que sur une enquête quantitative inédite en France menée en Limousin auprès de 500 producteurs pratiquant les circuits courts (700 variables), accompagnée de 40 entretiens libres auprès de producteurs, consommateurs, commerçants et acteurs institutionnels. Malgré une activité institutionnelle apparemment importante et fortement médiatisée, les circuits courts semblent se caractériser par le faible rôle des proximités institutionnelles. Les proximités spatiales et plus encore relationnelles jouent en revanche un rôle déterminant. En particulier, la proximité relationnelle qui caractérise les circuits courts en Limousin n’est pas un phénomène passager lié à une dynamique d’émergence mais une propriété durable qui induit un mode d’accompagnement particulier.
    Géographie Économie Société 10/2014; 16(3):339-362. DOI:10.3166/ges.16.339-362
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    • "A few studies of innovation in the area have pointed to the importance of the family and local networks in this reorientation (Brandth et al. 2010; Schmitt 2010). Moreover, research has studied motivations for agri-tourism entrepreneurship (Nickerson et al. 2001; McGehee and Kim 2004; McGehee et al. 2005, 2007; Haugen and Vik 2008). One finding is that farm women have a higher, but not very different motivation than men (McGehee et al. 2007), and that they consider hosting to provide positive work satisfaction and economic independence (Sharpley and Vass 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: This article aims to analyse the overlap between work and home in farm tourism.When farmers diversify their production into tourism using their homes as a commercial arena for hosting visitors, new challenges regarding boundaries between private and public, home and work arise. The article shows how central aspects of hosting involve inherent dilemmas between the farm as a home and as a site of commercial activities. Moreover, it shows how the boundaries between work and home are managed in order to balance business and a sense of home. Such boundary work consists of attempts at adjusting the product, marking rules and creating separate spaces for home and work, something that produces a more conditional hospitality. The analysis is based on studies of twenty family farms from various districts in Norway. Some of the farms combine tourism and farming while others have altered their production to tourism only. The material includes formal interviews with sixteen women and nineteen men operating the businesses.
    11/2012; 2(2):179-196. DOI:10.1386/hosp.2.2.179_1
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    • "With appropriate knowledge of the market, diversification into agritourism has the potential to add income to the farm family's household (McGehee & Kim, 2004; Nickerson, Black, & McCool, 2001; Williams et al., 2004). However, more so than the desire to increase economic returns, farm families may be diversifying into agritourism because of the effects of globalization on agriculture, the growth of tourism, and social motivations, such as choosing to maintain a rural lifestyle (Haugen & Vik, 2008; Ollenburg, 2006; Wilson, 2007). A leading expert on agritourism marketing, Eckert (2004) captures the essence of agritourism for the family farm as ―being all about opportunity ... the opportunity to keep the family farm alive by creating new revenue streams‖ and a way ―to keep the younger generation involved through creating new business roles and challenges‖ (p. "
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    ABSTRACT: The family farm is being threatened by changes in agriculture and the globalization of our food system. In response, many farms have diversified into tourism. However, farm diversification into tourism is based more on a leap of faith than on solid market research. Using data drawn from the 2006 Canadian Travel Activities and Motivation Survey (TAMS), the current study identified five discrete rural tourism niche market groups, including agritourists (i.e., those whose primary trip purpose was to visit a farm), to determine if their demographic profiles and the benefits they sought were different. The results indicated that agritourists were not notably different from other rural tourism niche markets. The findings question the niche status of agritourism as a viable diversification strategy for struggling farm families. Hence, rather than perpetuating agritourism as a special and distinct niche market, future research should identify and explore appropriate strategies that might help farm families transition out of a predominately agrarian economy into service-based and experience-based economies. Changes occurring in agriculture and the globalization of our food system are threatening the survival of the family farm (Brookfield, 2008; Brookfield & Parsons, 2007; Essex, Gilg, Yarwood, Smithers, & Wilson, 2005). In response to the economic turbulence resulting from these threats, farmers look to diversify their farms by adding new enterprises, thereby allowing the family to continue living and working on the land (Gasson & Errington, 1993; Haugen & Vik, 2008; Nickerson, Black, & McCool, 2001; Veeck, Che, & Veeck, 2006). Governments also encourage farmers to diversify into value-added products, services, and tourism (Essex et al., 2005; Gartner, 2004; Sznajder, Przezborska, & Scrimgeour, 2009; Veeck et al., 2006), and one particular rural tourism niche market— agritourism—is becoming a popular choice (Jayeff Partners, 2005; Kline, Cardenas, Leung, & Sanders, 2007; Williams, Lack, & Smith, 2004). Unfortunately, for many of the Canadian farm families embracing agritourism the transition has been based more on a leap of faith than on sound market research.
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